Efficient Transdermal Delivery of Alendronate, a Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonate, Using Tip-Loaded Self-Dissolving Microneedle Arrays for the Treatment of Osteoporosis.1The experiment shows that transdermal delivery of Alendronate using micro-needle arrays is a very effective treatment for Osteoporosis (Hidemasa,2017). This was done through self-dissolving microneedle arrays, known as in vitro. The microneedle is dip-coated only at the tip with ALN, Alendronate a Nitrogen containing Bisphosphonate which is the main component used to treat the disease in this trial. This was administered through lab rats, their micron-scale pores were showing a rapid release of ALN after the needle dissolved, which took only five minutes.(Hidemasa,2017) The traditional oral treatment has been found to cause intestinal and mucosal destruction. It also limits the intestinal absorption that is caused from high porality. It takes longer to absorb and a lot of the absorption would be lost through the intestines. This is found present in most, if not all patients.(Hidemasa,2017) This increased the bioavailability of ALN by 96%. Also the decrease in growth plate was efficiently suppressed and no skin irritation occurred except for the needles that were fully coated in the ALN and based off of Hyaluronic Acid.(Hidemasa,2017) In vitro treatment is convenient especially for those who are older and bedridden. It is much more effective, because it is directly injected instead of having to pass through the esophagus and digestive tract. This has been concluded as a successful treatment that delivered the drug quickly with no damage(Hidemasa,2017). Osteogenic effects of resveratrol in vitro: potential for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis2The main focus of the article was reviewing the Osteogenic effects of resveratrol in vitro for Osteoporosis (Mobasheri,2013). Researchers reviewed how a diet that is higher in fruit resulted in higher bone density. Alternative medicine such as proper nutrition has been found to prevent this illness from developing at the rate it is now. Diets high in antioxidants and resveratrol supplementation have displayed an increased rate in preventing osteoporosis.(Mobasheri,2013) In vitro effects of resveratrol have been shown to stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation, but it was concluded that this had little to no effect on estrogen agonism. The study that proved this, was done on growing rats. It was done over six days and contained dosages of: 4mg, 10mg, 20mg, and 100mg. Ten percent ethanol was used as a solvent but had no effects on urine wet weight, urine epithelial height, and cortical bone histomorphometry.(Mobasheri,2013) The second part of the article found that using Estrogen through a skin patch or taking it orally also shown an increase in prevention. For long-term prevention, women are advised to take Estrogen for at least seven years post menopause. But there is a risk with the unwanted side effects: headache, swollen breasts, weight gain, depression, and increase for risk of cancer. This is why women who have a medical history which includes these side effects should not partake in this treatment.(Mobasheri,2013) The main experiment in this article was a double-blind study using a controlled placebo with increasing concentrations of trans-resveratrol. Doses of either 25mg, 50mg, 100mg, or 150mg were given orally six to thirteen times a day. This was done to compare the risk to benefit ratio. The research has found that resveratrol protects chondrocytes against oxidant injury and apoptosis, through the effects of ATP production and mitochondrial repolarization.(Mobasheri,2013) One strength not present in Articles one or three was the potential for prevention in addition to treatment (Mobasheri,2013). Prevention initially avoids treatment all together. One of the major weaknesses present in this article was the claim of postmenopausal women and elderly citizens, with arthritis and other bone related illnesses having a difficult time absorbing Hormone replacement therapy (Mobasheri,2013). Another weakness was the potential side effects of increased cancer and stroke risk, which is correlated to high amounts of Estrogen (Mobasheri,2013). A problem that is faced through these clinical trials are safety and bioavailability of resveratrol. The safety is a minor concern, such as avoidance for the use of resveratrol in pregnant women and mothers who are nursing. There are no known negative effects on elderly women.(Mobasheri,2013)This article states that the research is underdeveloped and requires more clinical studies to take place (Mobasheri,2013). More clinical trials will aid in the validation of the gathered data and conclusion for the experiments.Title: Randomized clinical trial comparing efficacy and safety of brand versus generic alendronate (Bonmax®) for osteoporosis treatment3This study compared the brand and generic form of Bonmax. This therapy was used for osteoporosis treatment. The Lumbar spine was used as the main focus in the experiment to measure the effects of the two forms from the same drug (Unnanuntana,2017).The experiment used Serum B-CTx to monitor the bone respiration rate and Serum P1NP to monitor the rate of bone formation. Blood samples were taken at eight in the morning, prior to twelve hours of fasting. The data was collected at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months after bisphosphonate treatment. Basic lab tests were run at each visit for accuracy. Both groups of patients used a European Quality of Life Scale (0-100) that weighed from worst to best health status.(Unnanuntana,2017) The study compared brand and generic formula of ALD, both resulted with similar effects. There was an increase in BMD and a reduction in bone-turnover rate in both formulas. At the end of the study the generic form of Bonmax, ALD was found to be as effective as the brand formula (Unnanuntana,2017). The study started off with a total of 153 and ended with 112 patients, which is considered a major weakness. This was inevitable but none of the other studies mentioned the significant drop in participants. Many went outside of the guidelines during the experiment, drug use and not following the instructions were two factors. A couple participants died due to past undiagnosed illness and others did not want to continue with the experiment.(Unnanuntana,2017) This study needs to be conducted again to achieve accurate results.The study stayed consistent for the most part but was underdeveloped. Factual evidence has to be based off more than one study. That is why there are multiple experiments being done to produce a set data.(Unnanuntana,2017) Osteoporosis is a serious illness that leads to the brittleness and deterioration of bone density. The common treatments that have proven to succeed brought major side effects, and that is why it’s necessary to develop more efficient treatments that have minor ones. The experiments discussed in the three articles are the new treatments that were created to do that. The studies have shown the significant effects on how different forms of drugs could aid in treatment. The key solution to Osteoporosis is prevention, because if the issue could have been prevented there would be no need for treatment. The second article has shown that diet is the most important tool in the process of prevention for Osteoporosis. The other two articles showed that a drug has to have a set regimen to work the way it should. The research that was presented amongst these three articles was not in enough to support a valid conclusion. More testing has to be done to further the experiment and success of the drugs/treatment. Multiple testings with consistent results will validate the conclusions of the experiments. No biases were present in these studies.