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Dominik is the youngest of four children in his family. His
family needs sufficient help and support for both parents and the children. A service
I believe would be accommodating for the family is a family support worker. The
family support worker would be assigned to the family and can be a vast help in
helping them not only find a nursery for Dominik but help the family with any
struggles and worries they are experiencing.  “Family support
workers are social services professionals who provide assistance and guidance
to children and families in need”. (Chron, 2017).

family are already involved with a charity organisation called ‘Caritas’ which
provides them with free meals. There are a range of aspects a Family Worker is
able to give support on. Family workers can give advice on any financial issues
the parents may be having and give them any support of who to contact if
needed. They would also be able to offer Dominik’s parents with advice for some
local housing associations in their area to give support with finding a new
home closer to schools for the children and claiming some housing benefit to
help with financial matters. They are entitled to Housing Benefit as both
parents do not attend work so would meet the threshold for Housing Benefit.
They would be eligible for if they are on a low income, pay rent or have
savings which are below £16,000. (GOV,2017). Having
a warm, secure home would benefit the family including their health and
wellbeing. Expectantly the Housing Association would be able to move them to a
safer community within the area they live. Dominik’s wellbeing may be also be affected
whilst living in poor conditions, his physical wellbeing as well as his
emotional wellbeing. “The physical domain includes physical health, rates of
growth and knowledge about eating healthily and staying safe”. (Waller, 2009.
Pg17). If Dominik’s attended a nursery the practitioners would be able to give
support for him and the family, by providing activities for him, as well as recommending
services such as the food bank. Dominik also attending a pre-school or Nursery
will benefit him with his emotional wellbeing and his speech. Domink will
socialise with other peers and with staff helping him with his language
difficulties. Dominik’s family will be able to claim 15 hours funding so he is
able to attend the Nursery for free.

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has speech and occlusive abnormality in which he will need support with and
will need referring to a speech and language drop in group which a family
worker is able offer support for. The Sure start company will also be able to
offer Dominik’s parents confidential support in which they are able to confide
in them with their difficulties within the family life. “SLTs support children
with primary speech, language and communication difficulties, such as
stammering, as well as speech, language and communication difficulties that are
secondary to other conditions such as learning difficulties and hearing
problems”. (RCSLT, ND). This would give Dominik much more confidence and
support within himself, which will also benefit his emotional wellbeing. Emotional
wellbeing would be tracked by the Nursery by using a Leuven Scale. “Well-being
is linked to self-confidence, a good degree of self-esteem and resilience”
(Magic Nursery, ND). Dominik’s self esteem could be quite low as both parent’s emotional
wellbeing is low, Dad is an alcoholic and Mum has lost her job being on the
verge of depression. This leaves a negative effect on all of the children, but
mainly on Dominik as he spends the majority of the time at home with his
Parents, where as the other children attend school. Dominik, attending Nursery
would become much more confident and happier being social with peers and getting
the support, he needs from staff and specialists. Mum and Dad’s emotional
wellbeing will be considerably low because they do have two disabled children
that attend a special school, this could affect their stress levels as well as
dealing and coping with the other siblings alongside not having jobs and
feeling low in their state of mind.

is often ill as he is susceptible to infections from the upper respiratory
tract. He needs to be referred to his GP (General Practitioner) who will keep a
close eye on his difficulties. Dominks family face serious problems such as
housing, heating and feeding their children, this is not beneficial for Dominks
condition. “The best preventive measure is practicing good hygiene” (MSD
Manual, 2017). Dominik’s Parents need to ensure the whole family is showing
results of good hygiene. The GP may make a referral to a consultant Dominik for
further investigations. This may be extended further to a social worker if they
feel he isn’t getting the support he needs from home, or have any concerns
about the family in general.



The professionals who would be involved with Dominik, such
as the GP, SENCO, Speech and Language therapists, Family Worker, Social Worker,
Nursery Key Person, would ensure that all information stays confidential and
not passed on to any professional or person that is not involved within the
family. Case files will be locked in a secure cabinet and passed on to the
professionals in meetings when all together discussing the family.
“Confidentiality is seen as a fundamental ethical principle in health care and
a breach of confidentiality can be a reason for disciplinary action”. (UKcen,
2011). Everything is kept in each family/child’s file and is not discussed with
each other or anyone else unless permission has been given. “Bronfenbrenner conceptualized four ecological systems
that an individual interacted with, each nested within the others. Listed from
closest to the person to furthest:” (Learning Theories, 2005). There is the
Microsystem which is the first and immediate layer of the system. This would be
the relationships between Domink and his parents, siblings or school
environment. The relationships at this stage have a large impact in two
directions away from the child and towards them. Bi-directional influences who
are the people closest have the strongest impact on the child. A child’s
parents may affect the child behaviour and beliefs. This links to Dominik’s
parents because his Mother has trouble finding a job and is therefore
depressed, and Dominik’s father has suffered from alcohol misuse since losing
his job. These aspects may have affected Dominik’s behaviour and can affect his
speech defect.

Mesosystem is then the second layer which
surrounds the microsystem. These are the connections with the microsystem. would
be the child’s family and school teachers. Exosystem is the third layer, this
does contain elements of the microsystem but these do not affect the child
directly but can indirectly, in Dominik’s case it would be that his Mother lost
her job as this is putting financial stress on the family and increased stress
for surround family members. “This layer impacts the child’s development by
interacting with some structure in the microsystem”. (Florida health, 2001). Macrosystem
is the fourth layer this is the largest layer of the bioecological model. This
encompasses cultural beliefs that influence a child’s development. (Learning
theories, 2005). Each layer has an effect on a child’s development.

This theory from Bronfenbrenner is similar
to Lev Vygotsky’s ‘Scaffolding’ theory. Dominik needs scaffolding introduced to
him in the Nursery setting so is able to have his learning supported, as well
as his speech defect being scaffolded by the therapist or key person.
Vygotsky’s views are “Zone of proximal development as the area where the most
sensitive instruction or guidance should occur. This would allow the child to
develop skills to use on his or hew own to develop higher mental functions”.
(Study,2003). Dominik needs the structure of a Nursery to be able to develop
his language and skills to grow. Social interaction plays an essential role in
the process of cognitive development. In contrast, Piagets theory of his
understanding of child development, Vygotsky believed that social learning
leads development. He states “Every function in the child’s cultural
development appears twice: first on the social level, and later, on the
individual level; first between people (interpyscological) and then inside the
child (intrapsycological)”. (Learning theories, 2005). This would prove well
for Dominik as he does not get any social interaction with any other children
his age. If Dominik attended Nursery Bronfenbrenner’s theory would also link to
him because of the four layers linking to school and parents. The ‘Social
Identity Theory’ by “Tajfel and Turner explains that part of a person’s concept
of self comes from the groups to which that person belongs”.  (Learning Theory, 2005). They state that
people may act differently in different social circumstances according to the
groups they belong too, which could include anything varying from their family
to their nationality. Dominik’s family is Polish so may experience social
issues with having English as an Additional Language.



should be able to access to early years funding for 3-year olds. A family
worker is able to support them in finding a Nursery close to their home.
“Current policy in England mandates that all 3- and 4-year olds are entitled to
15 hours of free early education a week, for 38 weeks of the year. From April
2015, settings will have to access to the Early Years Pupil Premium (EYPP) to
support disadvantaged 3- and 4- year olds” (Palaiologou, 2016, pg79). The
Nursery will support Dominik’s family in claiming this as well as a Children’s
centre. Dominik will be able to claim these hours to attend a Nursery,
Pre-school or Daycare. They will give information and sometimes offer
translators to help with this process. “Some of the things Children’s Centres currently
offer families include:

access to
health services such as midwives and health visitors

support services – trained staff who can support you if you need help or want
some advice

about early years education and childcare

training and benefits advice

play sessions


a meeting
place for childminders

groups”. (Cambridgeshire Gov, 2017)

children’s centres will be able to offer all of these services to the family
and give the whole family support. Dominik’s Mum would benefit from taking
herself and Dominik along to drop in groups. She could also involve the other siblings
in this also. Dominik has two older siblings who are twins and an older sister
who is 8 years old who attends a SEN (Special Educational Needs) school. Dominik’s
Mum and Dominik would benefit from the social experiences of talking to other
Mums in the same situation. “Quality of relationships includes positive aspects of
relationships, such as emotional support provided by significant others, and
strained aspects of relationships, such as conflict and stress.” (ncbi, 2011).
Chrochan and Brassard (1979) happen to suggest that support networks that meet
socially encourage parent’s attitudes and behaviour which means their child
gets direct and indirect effects on their child’s development. (Crnic, K, 209). The children centre may be
able to offer help to Dominik’s Father who has suffered from alcohol misuse,
they may be able to give him advice on where to go to get support for this. Dominik’s
Mum is also beginning to feel depressed so seeking out help from a support
group for this also will benefit her greatly. The depression and alcohol misuse
are most defiantly affecting the children in the household. “Three-year-olds
with depressed mothers are also more likely to perform poorly on measures of
language skills and school readiness than children with mothers who aren’t
depressed.” (Parents, 2017). Dominik’s designated family worker would hopefully
be able to admit him into a Nursery/Pre-School which would benefit him and
extend his social skills. Dominik has speech and language difficulties therefor
the nursery would identify and offer the correct support for him. Nurseries and
Pre-schools will work alongside multi-agency teams of different professionals,
which can be Speech and Language therapists. They are there to ensure the child
and the parents have access to the support when needed. Some children do not
need as much input into their speech, whereas Dominik does have a clear speech
defect so will need additional input. Input in the Nursery/Pre-school would be
delivered and supported by a Key Person in the setting, alongside the SENCO
(Special Educational Needs Coordinator). For a child that has a severe speech
defect may be referred to a therapist. Parents must be on the same path as the
professionals and understand the decisions and agree. (Early Years Careers,
2017). Dominik’s speech defect would be identified by the Nurseries SENCO or
Key Person and will be given resources at the Nursery to support him. His Key
Person or SENCO will write out a (ISP) Individual Speech Plan or this may be
called ‘Assess plan do review’ which will include different games and
activities for Dominik to support him with his difficulties. “Identifying a pupil’s needs will involve using a range of
data in order to establish a baseline. SENCOs will need to ensure that teachers
are using the following.  

Teacher assessed attainment and progress data, including all relevant
prior attainment data or predicted grades.

Analysis of the pupil’s work.

Observations of the pupil (in class and in less structured situations).

Feedback from discussions with parents, pupils and staff.

Attendance and behaviour data.”. (Optimus Education, 2017). It will be
up to the Key Person to get the valuable data of Dominik which would then lead
to hopefully getting speech and language input as needed. The Nursery will also
follow guideline from speech and language so he is learning the correct things
for where he is at his age and where he should be, as well as what he is able
to do due to his speech defect. Sometimes children with a speech defect could
be diagnosed to something more in depth like a SEN (Special Educational Need),
this is not always the case but could be for some children, therefor would have
a range of different professionals in to visit him to give all of the support
they need. This could include, Education Psychologist, Specialist Teacher,
SENCO, Translator for support for parents as well as Dominik. Whilst attending
Nursery Dominik may benefit from attending a sensory circuit which some schools
offer to children. “Participation
in a short sensory motor circuit is a great way both to energise and settle
children into the school day” (NHS,2015). This may not always be the case,
Dominik, as mentioned will be eligible for 3 years funding, but Parents may
face the problem that there is not a Pre-school/Nursery nearby. Depending on
the area in which they live a Daycare may only be available. This could be in
their favour as most Daycares, lunch is provided for the children, whereas in
Preschools Only Snack is provided and sessions are considerably shorter, in
which he will not receive lunch. There may be an advantage with attending a
Pre-school, most Pre-schools are joined to a school, therefor would be easier
for Mum alongside her other children with dropping off and collecting. Another
benefit for Dominik and his parents would be that there may be a translator
from the school if there are any issues regarding Dominik. A Daycare would be
busier, so possibly not ideal for Dominik with his speech defect and low
self-esteem, however could be beneficial for him to be sociable with peers.
“Social development is about developing positive relationships with others and
seeing ourselves in relation to other people”. (Hutchin, 2012:PG128).  All of these factors depend on the area in
which Dominik and his family live.

 Dominik’s siblings attend school
and access free school meals. When Dominik attends school, he will be eligible
for free school meals. To become eligible for free school meals parents, need
to be receiving a type of benefit, which Dominik’s Parents do. “Your child might be able to get free
school meals if you get any of the following:


Jobseeker’s Allowance

Employment and Support Allowance

under Part VI of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999

guaranteed element of Pension Credit

Child Tax
Credit (provided you’re not also entitled to Working Tax Credit and have an
annual gross income of no more than £16,190)

Tax Credit run-on – paid for 4 weeks after you stop qualifying for Working Tax

Credit”. (GOV, 2017).




















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CHRON, 2017. Duties
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R., 1983. Effects of stress and social support on mothers and premature and
full-term infants. Child Development.
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Early Years Careers,2017. Supporting Parents through the Speech and Language referral process. online
Available at
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accessed on 01/11/2017.

GOV, 2017. Apply for
free school meals. online Available at
accessed on 24/11/2017.

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accessed on 24/04/2017.

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Available at
accessed on 24/12/2017.

Magic Nursery, ND. The
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accessed on 28/12/2017.

Manuals, 2017. Overview
of Viral Respiratory Tract Infections in Children. online
< >
accessed on 24/12/2017.

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accessed on 30/12/2017.

Optimus Education, 2017. The assess plan do review cycle in practice. online Available at

accessed on 28/12/2017. 

Palaiologou, I., 2016. The Early Years Foundation Stage
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Parents, 2017. How
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accessed on 25/10/2017.

Study, 2003. Zone of
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Umberson, D., Karas Montez, J., 2011. Social Relationships
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