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Developing a comprehensive resistance training program utilizes
various systems and techniques critical for athletic performance.
Evaluating training goals and objectives and individualizing workouts is
necessary for optimizing any resistance training program (Fleck & Kraemer,
2014). A successful training program needs to account the particular sports movement patterns, physiology demands, injury
prevents as well as the goals of the athlete. Continuous assessment and changes in the form of program progression and periodization are required during each training phrase to prevent strength and
conditioning plateaus and overtraining.
Furthermore, progression and periodization are needed to maximize physiology adaptations
and adequate recovery to prevent injuries.

            Various training systems and
techniques should include components of strength training, endurance training
and flexibility training based on the demands of
the sport or activity. Proper
program design should consist of evidence-based
researched methods to maximize results. Components
of a resistance training program should account
include the individuals, age, sex, weight,
position in sports,  and injury history to design the sports specific need of the athlete
properly. Training variables need to specify the optimal exercises sets, repetitions,
training loads, rest periods and frequency training based on sound, evidence-based
principles. Program designers must use the major
principles of resistance training, such as progressive overload, specificity,
and variation, while also paying special
attention to making changes that meet the changing training goals and fitness
level of each trainee (Fleck & Kraemer, 2014).  

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            The needs and goals of an athlete
should include not only training outcomes, such as increased strength or
changes in body composition, but also administrative
concerns, such as the total training time available, the type of training
traditionally performed, and equipment availability (Fleck & Kraemer,
2014).  To successful design, a program using various systems and technique will be base on
information gathered from a need analysis, biomechanical needs analysis, and acute program variables.

Brief
Description of the Topics

             A needs analysis is a process that
involves answering a series of questions that assist in the design of a
resistance training program (Fleck & Kraemer, 2014). A needs analysis
should address the muscle groups involved, energy systems, muscle actions
involved, common injuries associated with the sport. Energy systems may include
the ATP-PC pathway, the anaerobic pathway, and the aerobic pathway.  Fox (1979)(as cited by Fleck & Kramer,
2014) noted, the performance of every sport and activity derives a percentage
of needed energy from all three energy sources. Depending on the activity or
sport, the energy required primary utilizing one energy system source, thus training
for the development of the energy system needs to be addressed to optimize
performance.

            A need analysis
should also address the specific needs for muscle strength, hypertrophy,
endurance, power, speed, agility, flexibility, body composition, balance, as
well as coordination. The principle of specificity, a major
tenet in resistance training, states that the exercise program must reflect, in
part, the characteristics of the activity or sport for an adequate transfer to
occur from the program to the activity (Fleck & Kraemer, 2014). In addition
to the information obtained from a needs assessment, biomechanical analysis
data should also be included to optimize the athlete’s performance. Biomechanical
analyses permit the choice of specific exercises that use the muscles and types
of muscular actions in a manner specific to the activity for which training is being performed (Fleck & Kraemer, 2014).  A biomechanical analysis includes a joint range of
motion, the movement around a specific joint, the pattern of resistance throughout the range of motion, the
patent of limb velocity throughout the range of motion, and the types of muscle
action such as concentric, eccentric and
isometric muscle actions. Decisions regarding
the use of isometric, dynamic concentric, dynamic eccentric, or isokinetic
exercise modalities are essential in the
preliminary stages of planning a resistance training program for sport,
fitness, or rehabilitation (Fleck & Kraemer, 2014).

            Upon completion of the need
assessment and biomechanical analysis,
the program can be designed to address the acute program variables.  Acute program variables include a choice of exercise, muscle actions, the order of exercise, number of sets, rest
periods, and intensity of exercise. Once training variables have been established, trainers have to determine
which resistance training system and techniques need to be utilized to address
the goals, and physiological demands fo the sport to maximize performance as well
as prevent injuries. Training systems and technique include singles set systems,
circuit systems, multiple-set systems, drop sets, pyramid systems, and light to heavy
systems. Other training systems include exercise order systems. Exercise order systems
include alternating muscle groups and
stacking exercise order. Alternating muscle group order involves not performing
exercises for a particular muscle group in succession,
opposed to stacking exercise order that involves performing the exercise for the same muscle group in
succession. Training effects of alternating muscle group order and stacking exercise order can be obtained from techniques such as flushing, priority system training, super-setting, split-body training, body-part training, and blitz training. There are training techniques that can be utilized
in with other training techniques. These techniques include cheating, sets to failure, burn technique, assisted repetitions,
force repetitions, super slow technique, 
and vascular occlusion. Each technique has its training stimulus on physiology. The trainer must decide which approach will provide the optimal
training stimulus to maximize results as well as create variety during the training sessions. 

            Also,
specific systems and techniques produce a
particular training goal and training stimulus for advanced lifters. These
training techniques and systems include
functional isometrics, implement training, vibrations training, negative
training, super-overload training,
unstable surface training, sling training, functional training, and extreme
conditioning training such as CrossFit. The
strength and conditioning specialist,
personal training, athletic trainer as well as a physical therapist when designing a resistance
training program must exercise sound judgment
based on the need assessment, biomechanical assessment, and evidence-based research.

Results
of Current Literature

            Current literature of resistance
training programs indicates progressive
overload should be an essential characteristic of
training programs directed at the development of neuromuscular capabilities and
athletic performance. Resistance training programs for athletic
performance must adhere to the principle of training specificity to match the demands of the sports training program
developed for a specific athlete (Pearson, Faigenbaum, Conley, & Kraemer,
2000). The principle of periodization
should be designed to maximize physiological adaptation through the course of various training cycles to enhance athletic
performance. Periodization not only helps to
optimize performance, but also helps to prevent overtraining which could lead
injuries. Pearson et al. (2000) noted
multiple sets periodized resistance training programs are superior to a single set, non-periodized
programs for physical development over long-term training programs. Kravitz
(2009) noted the strategies to enhance
resistance training adaptations include increasing resistance training intensity, completing more repetitions at current levels of exercise intensity, alternating the speed or tempo of repetitions, changing rest periods between sets
when strength training, and gradually
increasing training volumes.

            Current literature on whole
training (W) routines versus split training (S) routines yielded a similar result in strength and lean body tissue
in women. The W group performed four upper
body exercises and three lower body exercise in single session twice a week,
opposed to S group performing upper body exercises two days a week and lower body exercise on two other days. The single maximal
weight lift (1-RM) increased (p < 0.05) (W/S) 54/69%, 33/32%, and 21/22% in arm curl, bench press, and leg press exercises, as did arm (10/9%), and trunk (3.4/2.7%) lean tissue mass, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Calder, Chilibeck, Webber & Sale, 1994). Calder et al. (1994) noted,  leg lean mass increased significantly in the W group at 4.9% versus 1.7% in the S group, whole-body lean tissue mass increased (W/S)(4.1/2.6%), and whole body % fat (-1.1/-1.3%) decreased with training.                 Current literature has shown improvements in acute neuromuscular responses to maximum repetitions (MR) versus forced repetition (FR) knee extension resistance exercises in four male strength athletes (SAs) and four non-athletes. Electromyogram (EMG) activity showed increased in both groups throughout the MR sets. SAs were capable of activating their muscles to a greater extent than their non-strength-trained counterparts indicated by neural fatigue during the FR exercise as well as higher motor unit activation (Ahtiainen & Hakkinen, 2009). Research has shown athletes training for maximal strength, power, and velocity of movement should emphasize higher-intensity ground-based lifts (e.g., Olympic lifts, squats, and dead lifts) and not limit the training program to instability-based resistance exercises (Behm, Drinkwater, Willardson & Cowley, 2010).             Due to the physiological demands of sports, spinal stability is required in the execution of sports skills as well as the prevention of injury, thus comprehensive resistance program destabilizing components. Behm et al. (2010) noted, the destabilizing component may involve instability devices, but can also be achieved with ground-based free weights that provide a destabilizing torque to the center of gravity or a transverse stress to the core musculature. From a performance standpoint, unstable devices should not be utilized when hypertrophy, absolute strength, or power is the primary training goal, because force generation, power output, and movement velocity are impaired and may be insufficient to stimulate the desired adaptations, especially in trained athletes (Behm et al., 2010).             Research of various resistance training techniques versus heavy weight training (HWT) yielded some variables. The resistance training techniques tested included isokinetic, eccentrics, functional isometrics, super slow motion, rest pause, breakdowns, and maximal power training.  Keogh, Wilson, and Weatherby (1999) found that eccentrics and isokinetic had significantly (p < 0.05) greater levels of force and integrated electromyography than HWT during the eccentric phase. Functional isometrics had significantly more force and breakdowns significantly higher triceps brachii electromyography than HWT in the concentric phase (Keogh et al., 1999). Super slow motion and maximal power training produced lower levels of force and integrated electromyography versus HWT, super slow motion produce more significant results with time under tension training. Further results showed maximal power training produced greater levels of power production than HWT in both the eccentric and concentric phases. Although no alternative resistance training techniques were found to produce significantly greater levels of blood lactate response than HWT, maximal power training and eccentrics produced significantly lower levels (Keogh et al., 1999). Discussion              Research has shown various a comprehensive, evidence-based resistance training program.  Research has also shown the effects on physiological adaptions from various training systems and techniques. Physiological adaptation occurs when there is continuous progress overload, and periodization is implemented within the training program. Furthermore, modes exercise manipulation are required to promote physiological adaptation as well as enhance athletic performance. The 2009 ACSM position stand states that the results of a resistance training program depend on the type of program designed and the methodological manipulation of muscle actions, intensity, volume, exercise selection, exercise order, rest periods and workout frequency (Kravitz, 2009). Research has also shown various techniques yield may yield a similar result and other more significant results. When comparing W routines versus S routines, 1 RM and lean body tissues yielded similar results. Techniques such as functional isometrics, super slow motion, and maximal power training produce greater results than HWT. Acute neuromuscular adaptation was evident in SA versus non-athletes when performing MA versus FR. Ground-based free weights with destabilizing components such as Olympic lifts, squats, and dead lifts are more functional than the use destabilizing exercise equipment and exercise alone. Due to the physiological demands of sport ground-based free weights exercises would provide more significant adaptations for force generation, power output, and movement velocity versus the use of destabilization equipment and exercises. Conclusion              The research of resistance training technique and systems has provided data showing various physiological results as well as means to achieving those results.  There are numerous training techniques and systems, but trainer needs to utilize the more proven evidenced-based methods to yield the desired effect. The 2009 ACSM position stand states that the results of a resistance training program depend on the type of program designed and the methodological manipulation of muscle actions, intensity, volume, exercise selection, exercise order, rest periods and workout frequency (Kravitz, 2009). Research has shown depending on the athlete needs, biomechanical movements require of the sports as well as and physiological adaption required reliable and valid research is a must to achieve the desired results. The information obtained from the results should be analyzed to provide a guideline to maximize athletic performance, fitness goals, and overall health benefits. Future research is needed to analyze a variety of resistance training techniques and systems with individual sports as means to identify the most productive method to maximize results as well as decreased potential injuries.

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