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Decades before, researchers  were not concerned  about  individual learning or how learning  environments  affected  the  learning outcomes of students. However,  they only  focused on  effects  of  curriculum  changes  and  changes in teaching procedures which led  to  changes  in  student  performance. (Shulman, 1997).  In the  late 1960s, behaviourist  theories  of  learning were  fading and  Piaget’s idea of intellectual development which  emphasised  cognitive  structures and  cognitive development became  a  focus. Piaget’s  research on  an  individual’s  cognitive structures  and  cognitive  operations  was influenced  by  behaviourism.  In the first half of the  20th  century,  student learning  was viewed  from  a cognitive perspective, particularly  in  science education.  Cognitivist  theories  explain brain-based  learning  and  extend  beyond behaviourist theories; the brain  manages information, put  information  together  and  creates designs or ideas  ( Hence,  in  this  view learning  is  seen  as  an internal mental  process which  includes  insight, information  processing,  memory  and perception which  focuses  on cognitive and meta-cognitive  development  towards learning.  According to  this learning theory  what  is learnt in  short  segments is accumulated  and  at  the  end reinforced. This  theory  can  be particularly  influential in vocational  education training  modules (   However, research shows that cognitive  learning  is  also  a  continuous process and  it occurs over the life span of  an individual. Furthermore,  Ausubel’s theory  found in 1963,  which  was known  as  ‘Psychology  of Meaningful Verbal Learning’ interprets that cognitive learning is  a continuous process and occurs  over the  life  span  of  a

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