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Counseling is a process that takes place between two persons, in a conducive environment on a relationship between ensuring complete trust and strict confidentiality. The relationship between the client (or the counselee) and the counselor is such that it creates a comfortable environment for the client to express his problems and thoughts efficiently and clearly and help the counselor understand it and find a solution to it.The counselors are trained professionals who are able to effectively provide warmth, empathy and feeling of tolerance and sincerity towards the client, thus building trust and hence provoking the client to speak out more openly.Counseling helps create a change in the client’s perspective, making him understand himself/ herself better and hence take important decisions with more accuracy and better judgement. It also helps the client understand why the environment responded to him/her the way it did and how he/she can improve himself/herself or the surrounding to improve this response in a positive direction, or to create a more positive, healthy response.The process can get over in a single session or can continue over many sessions, wherein the duration may vary from months to years.Stages of counseling:Counseling is a long process and has to be undertaken in stages. A counselor and a client do not know each other, and hence the trust building and effective self-disclosure by the client has to start from scratch. The basic stages of counseling are: initial disclosure (first stage), assessment and diagnosis (second stage), commitment to action (third stage). Initial disclosure : Can also be perceived as relationship building. Here the client and the counselor and complete strangers and hence it is required on the counselor’s part to be as informal as possible and make the client feel comfortable, so as to encourage self-disclosure.                                             Empathy, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness are qualities that can promote trust building. If the counselor can make the client feel that he/she is being understood and not judged on any level, in any way no matter what he/she says, it helps create an environment of trust and comfort that enables the client to speak his/her mind. Restatement and paraphrasing help, along with concreteness wherein the counselor is as clear as he could be in expressing the client’s feelings. This leads to better insight on the client’s part and better aid to solving the client’s problem. All of this comes under in-depth exploration, which is the second stage.      Commitment to action: This stage includes summarizing and decision making. The client and counselor have reached the end of trying to figure out the problems, their sources and the probable behavioural problems within the client. It can go either way from here- the client can decide that he has done everything that he/she could, or be encouraged to make certain behavioural changes to see if the situation can be made better. The counselor can recommend behavioural changes and recognize its effectiveness for the client to adapt to the situation. Counseling ends if the client feels that the changes are helping. If not, the counselor could make a referral to another counselor or psychiatrist if he/she feels that the client needs that particular aid or if the the case is beyond his comprehension or ability.Ethics of counseling:Maintaining the client-counselor privilege of confidentiality. The counselor can not talk about anything the client has conveyed to him to anyone else, unless the counselor feels the need to and only with the client’s permission.Respecting the client’s rights and dignity, not being judgemental about his/her beliefs, prejudices or social practices, cultural beliefs, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, etc. The counselor must at all times be open-minded and accept the client as it is. Taking informed consent from the client regarding disclosure of the client’s personal information or any other information that may need third-party help. Written consent or recorded oral consent is very much important.Subject analysis:Name: Valencia Ferrao Age: 19Gender: FemaleEducational Qualification: FYBAThe subject was very relaxed and at ease. Her body language revealed a moderate degree of comfort accompanied by certain levels of anxiousness, possible due to the anticipation of what she would be asked. She answered the questions with relative ease, while taking her own time and going into the smaller details, which showed that she wasn’t very guarded against the counselor. The session progressed effectively as she went through talking about her family and feelings in general to what she felt about her friends and environment. She maintained eye contact and hand gestures were subtle. Overall the client responded effectively to the initial disclosure, and showed trust towards the counselor.The impression of the client was pretty jolly. She looked like a happy girl with not much bothers. She also seemed pretty positive while talking about her life in college, in and outside home. She didn’t seem too troubled about having to travel. Overall she looked pretty at ease with herself and her surroundings.The questions asked were:What is your name? Age?Where do you live?How do you travel? Are you comfortable travelling like that?Is college fun? Do you feel exhausted?What do you do in your free time? What do you do with your friends?Have you joined any clubs?What department do you study in? Did you choose it according to your preference or were you talked into taking it by others?Tell me about your family. Do you get along with all the members?Results:Case study refers to the procedure wherein one extracts information about a subject, event, or a client by various methods that include observation, interviews, self-report etc. A case study is a thorough and meticulous research done over a period of time.There can be problems such as the research is open to subjective interpretation of the researcher, and the data acquired may be outdated or based on the bias of the providers or the researcher himself/herself. It is also a better way to get the client talking about his/her life via interviews and discussions conducive to healing

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