Continuing the previous chapter, which provided the theoretical framework of the thesis, this chapter focuses on analyzing Al-Jawahiri’s “Tigris the Donor of Welfare” (Ya Dijlat Alkhayr) and Mattawa’s “Date Palm Trinity”. In addition, it shows the themes of diaspora, exile, memory of the past and loneliness to clarify how both poems are different from each other and how much they are similar. Although the poems were written in two different geographical and cultural settings, they deal with certain concepts in a similar way. The significance of diaspora in both poems is shown through both poets’ invitation of their people to freedom, which happens in mostly all of their poetry from the moment they were sent outside their countries.
The lives of these poets are similar in a number of points; one of them is that they both lived outside their countries and they were both from the same Arab background. However, their difference lies in the fact that Al-Jawahiri could not settle in his new surroundings but for Mattawa this deed was easier. Mattawa seems to be assimilated with his new adopted country whereas Al-Jawahiri kept wishing if he could smell the air of Iraq for one time and one time only (Meisami & Sparkey, 1998, p. 413). u1 Regarding the themes of diaspora, memory and exile, it should be clear that “Tigris the Donor of Welfare” (Ya Dijlat Alkhayr), and”Date Palm Trinity” poems both have the same themes, and this chapter fully analyzes them according to their meaning and literary devices.
3.2 Transnationalism and Diaspora as Partners
Transnationalism narrowly refers to refugees’ life-long relations across countries, and widely, it is used to capture not only societies, but also all kinds of such social constructions as transnationally active networks, groups, and establishments. In addition, while diaspora and transnationalism are sometimes used compatibly, both of them reflect different intellectual genealogies. The initiation of the concept of diaspora and the establishment of transnational approaches can be utilized effectively to study key questions of social and political change and conversion (Faist, 2010, pp. 7-22).
According to Faist (2010), the meanings of diaspora and transnationalism are similar (‘second-generation return’), espouse similarities (‘diasporic transnationalism’); they may even refer to conflicting standpoints (diaspora as simply one form of transnational social formation). While the usage of the terms often overlaps, diasporic phenomena can be regarded as a subset of transnational social formations that have wider range. In a crucial similarity, uses of the two supple terms in the social sciences have an agency-oriented, processual view of cross border social phenomena in common (p.23).
The challenge here is to account for the influence of states, migrant organizations, and other organizations or small groups such as affinity groups, on societal processes, institutions, and structures of migrant incorporation in immigration as well as emigration settings. Diaspora and transnationalism lay more focus on agency and processes within global structures; therefore, they are less prone to sweeping generalizations. It is also vital to study the boundaries of groups, communities, and unities that are determined by members or external observers through attributing some transnational or diasporic characteristics to them (Faist, 2010, p. 25).
Diaspora and transnationalism are also lenses not antithetical to, yet also different from ‘methodological cosmopolitanism’ in that they do not presume the ‘global’ as a horizon of perception, interpretation, investigation, or ethical estimation. However, transnationalism in the field of migration, in particular, may be associated to broader concerns of transnational studies, such as transnational organizations (multinational companies), transnational protest movements, transnational expert circuits and global macro-fields of economy, politics, and wealth. (Faist, 2010, p.30)
In this way, diaspora and transnationalism are essential elements for inquiring and redefining necessary terms of the social sciences, for example, ‘community’, ‘social space,’ and ‘boundaries’. Still, one of the most important strengths of diaspora studies and migrant transnationalism is namely its “reflexivity of agency” and processes which needs to be brought to bear upon the understanding of broader issues of social change and transformation (Faist, 2010, p. 33).