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CHAPTER II

Review of Related
Literature and Studies

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This
chapter provides an overview of previous research on knowledge sharing. It
introduces the framework for the study that consists of the main focus of the
research which is work productivity of the senior high school teachers.

Motivation

Gredler,
Broussard and Garrison (2004), explains the motivation as “the quality of
a person that move us to do or not to do something.” (p.106).  

Lai
(2011) emphasized that motivation involved a series of attributes including
values, perceptions, interests and actions which are all associated with each
other. On the other hand,
Turner (1995) considers motivation to be synonymous with cognitive engagement,
which he defines as “voluntary uses of high-level self-regulated learning
strategies, such as paying attention, connection, planning, and monitoring” (p.
413).

Efficiency and Productivity
of Employees 

Fraser (1994) defines
Efficiency as measure of the resources
used (costs) to achieve stated goals. It is unfortunate that governments
frequently confuse quality in higher education with efficiency. Low-standard
goals might well be achieved at low cost. (p. 104). For example, a student who
perform arranging files every day during his/her immersion, if that student was
able to finish the task earlier than his previous one, then that student is
efficient. Meaning, efficiency is producing output but not wasting too much
time, energy and resources.

 It is
essential for employees to ensure tasks are accomplished within the time frame
given by their superiors. Employees are hired to help an organization to
perform task and accomplish it before the deadline that is why employees need
to find their jobs interesting for them to feel motivated and deliver results
on time with minimum errors.

Most
employees want freedom in working. They want to choose when or where to work so
they can be more productive, make great and faster decisions. But these are
days that employees don’t want to work and there are lot of disturbance that
it’s hard to get rid all at once. Sometimes there are things you can do to be
more productive.

De
Lazo (2016), suggests different ways to stay efficient in the workplace.
According to De Lazo (2016), employees should follow schedule, be discipline
and use time wisely. Plan your breaks, make sure to have time to rest your mind
and recharge your energy, and additionally manage your energy. Make sure your
last of energy will be worth it. Further, use apps that can help you stay focus
like music applications. Lastly, find a work-friendly environment where you can
stay efficient and less stressful.

Hicks
(2017) explains that employees are spending too much time at the office –
certainly it exceeds the typical hours of work per week which is forty (40) hours.
Nevertheless the increased in hours worked does not necessarily lead to
increased efficiency. Hicks (2017) proposed top ten (10) different ways to
improve employee efficiency and the first is “Don’t be afraid to delegate”. This
tip may seem obvious but sometimes it’s hard to put this into practice. There
is nothing wrong with prioritizing quality because it is what makes an
organization successful, but in the end, checking over small details by
yourself and not assigning employee can waste everyone’s valuable time. To
improve the productivity of the employee is to let them explore and perform
tasks on their own believing that they will perform the task well and this
gives the employee the chance to gain experience and learn skills that may
benefit the company. Next is “Match Tasks to Skills”. To maximize the
efficiency, it is necessary to know the employee’s skill and behavior. There
could be some conflicts that may happen if the tasks given to a worker is not matched
with his/her skills. Another one is “Communicate Effectively”. Communication is
very important for both employee and boss because it is what makes the company
successful. It is used if the employees have any concern regarding their task
or the boss is assigning tasks to employees and because of the technology, it
allowed us to connect with our co-workers with a single click even they are not
around. Top four (4) is “Keep Goals Clear and Focused”. Before assigning tasks
to employees, make sure that the objectives and goal to aim are clearly defined
and time-bound. Making sure that the SMART –specific, measurable, attainable,
realistic and time-bound was analyzed before assigning tasks.

 

Not
enough time for class discussion is one of the things that hindrance teacher’s
productivity. It happens when teachers had engage their students in a
passionate discussion and it has to be cut short by time. Teachers often have
to make important announcement at the beginning or end of class. Cutting into
crucial activities. A lot of time is spent on basic classroom management or
other housekeeping and these mundane but necessary task hinder teacher’s
productivity. Perhaps the most pervasive teacher’s productivity problem is the
common complaint that grading takes too long. Teachers may not be able to get
out of this entirely bit they can significantly speed up the process and see a
surge in teacher’s productivity.

 

However,
teacher’s productivity is a real challenge but by embracing digital tools and
making a few changes in practice and procedure, teacher can use their time
effectively

Motivation
is hard to achieve because of negativity in work environment. To be productive,
you must be creative and has a positive sight in life. Then, find motivation.
Use your motivation to motivate others. These guides will serve as a good
quality towards working.

Philippine Productivity
Dynamics in the Last Five Decades and Determinants of Total Factor Productivity

A
general picture emerging from various studies is that TFP has not been a source
of growth in the Philippines.   With
studies finding negative TFP growth, it seems that factor accumulation has
underpinned Philippine economic growth, which is not a sustainable source of
growth.    Studies have shown that the
sustained growth of developed countries has ridden on the back of technological
advances rather than increasing use of factor inputs. Because factor inputs
cannot increase indefinitely, total factor productivity improvement is the only
route to sustain economic growth in the long run. In his survey article, Chen
pointed out that almost all studies of developed economies show that total
factor productivity is a far more important source of growth than factor
inputs.  On the other hand, empirical studies
of growth accounting for developing economies in Asia and Latin America
indicate that capital input is the major source of growth with total factor
productivity taking a less important role in economic growth.  The fear is that reliance on factor
accumulation alone would not make growth sustainable.

If
the low and non-inclusive growth trend continues, the Philippine economy will continue
to lag behind its East Asian neighbors in terms of economic performance and of
efforts to reduce poverty and high-income inequality.  

Philippine
growth of the past decade portrayed as “jobless growth” has had an insignificant
impact on poverty reduction.    This
raises a warning from Alba (2007) that a low steady-state level of output per
worker will consign the economy to a slow rate of long-term growth.    It is a worrisome prognosis conjuring
images of a continuous diaspora of the best and brightest to developed
countries, a persistently weak economy, 38 and a further worsening of poverty
and high-income inequality in the future. To reverse this trend and put the
economy on a high sustained growth path, there is a case for improving total
factor productivity, in particular labor productivity, including, pursuing innovations
and reforming the country’s institutions as a pathway out of low and jobless growth.   

Is
there a particular role for government in stimulating growth and making it
sustainable?  On this point the lucid
summarization by Sarel (1996) on the role of public policy from three different
perspectives comes handy.  Those
perspectives are the (a) neo-classical free market view of the role of public
policy in the economy, (b) selective intervention policies, and (c) agnostic
view that rejects claims of both the primacy of markets view (neo-classical)
and selective interventionist policies’ camp, dubbed “the revisionists” by
Sorel.  The revisionists aver that
nothing meaningful about selective interventions can be said because nobody can
properly identify how such policies affect economic growth. On the other hand,
the neo-classicists assume that markets are efficient and that government
should confine itself to providing public goods and to getting the basics
right.  Government should abstain from
any further intervention in the market. In the Philippines, various market
imperfections and the presence of various types of externalities seem to
indicate a role for government in policy coordination, addressing information
externalities, and addressing the excesses of the market.  As observed by Sarel (1996), government can
play a useful role in the orderly development of the market, in the acquisition
of technology and in allocating funds for useful projects that promise a good
rate of return.  Put differently, De Long
and Summers (1991) state a case for a role of government in the economy: “The
government should jump start the industrialization   process  
by   transforming   economic  
structure   faster   than  
private entrepreneurs would.” In the light of the analysis of
productivity dynamics in the past five decades and the findings of the
empirical investigation, some policy levers present themselves as critical in
improving productivity growth rates in the economy.  Investments in education, more government
expenditure for improving human capital, greater openness of the economy
(measured   by   FDI/GDP  
and   trade/GDP), attracting   more  
FDIs, and maintaining macro-economic stability are indispensable in
improving productivity growth and performance.

The Validity and
Reproducibility of a Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Instrument

The
construct validity of a quantitative work productivity and activity impairment
(WPAI) measure of health outcomes was tested for use in clinical trials, along
with its reproducibility when administered by 2 different methods. 106 employed
individuals affected by a health problem were randomized to receive either 2
self-administered questionnaires (self-administration) or one self-administered
questionnaire followed by a telephone interview (interviewer administration).

Construct
validity of the WPAI measures of time missed from work, impairment of work and
regular activities due to overall health and symptoms, were assessed relative
to measures of general health perceptions, role (physical), role (emotional),
pain, symptom severity and global measures of work and interference with
regular activity.

Multivariate
linear regression models were used to explain the variance in work productivity
and regular activity by validation measures. Data generated by
interviewer-administration of the WPAI had higher construct validity and fewer
omissions than that obtained by self-administration of the instrument. All
measures of work productivity and activity impairment were positively
correlated with measures which had proven construct validity.

These
validation measures explained 54 to 64% of variance (p < 0.0001) in productivity and activity impairment variables of the WPAI. Overall work productivity (health and symptom) was significantly related to general health perceptions and the global measures of interference with regular activity. The self-administered questionnaire had adequate reproducibility but less construct validity than interviewer administration. Both administration methods of the WPAI warrant further evaluation as a measure of morbidity.     Work Motivation Quality work that fosters job satisfaction and health enjoys top priority in industry all over the world. This was not always so. Until recently analysis of job attitudes focused primarily on human relations problems within organizations. While American industry was trying to solve the unsolvable problem of avoiding interpersonal dissatisfaction, problems with the potential for solution, such as training and quality production, were ignored. When first published, The Motivation to Work challenged the received wisdom by showing that worker fulfillment came from achievement and growth within the job itself. In his new introduction, Herzberg examines thirty years of motivational research in job-related areas. Based on workers' accounts of real events that have made them feel good or bad on the job, the findings of Herzberg and his colleagues have stimulated research and controversy that continue to the present day. The authors surprisingly found that while a poor work environment generated discontent, improved conditions seldom brought about improved attitudes. Instead, satisfaction came most often from factors intrinsic to work: achievements, job recognition, and work that was challenging, interesting, and responsible. The evidence marshaled by this volume called into question many previous assumptions about job satisfaction and worker motivation.  Feelings about intrinsic and extrinsic factors could not be validly averaged on a single scale of measurement. Motivation and performance are not merely dependent upon environmental needs and external rewards. Frederick Herzberg and his staff based their motivation—hygiene theory on a variety of human needs and applied it to a strategy of job enrichment that has widely influenced motivation and job design strategies. Motivation to Work is a landmark volume that is of enduring interest to sociologists, psychologists, labor studies specialists, and organization analysts. Effectiveness in Developing and Managing Instruction Effectiveness of course delivery involves the extent to which a faculty member can of course delivery is shown in student course evaluations and teaching observations provided by Course content includes: a) course readings, b) instructor-developed resources, c) class exercises, shown in student course evaluations, program or departmental faculty review of course syllabi Course development refers to creating a new course or Evidence of quality in course development is shown by program or of course content, evidence of quality in curriculum development is shown by program or departmental faculty review of course syllabi and external reviews of course syllabi by experts in course having several sections that are taught by various faculty members, graduate students, or course materials, revision of course content based on evaluations, selection of instructors, and faculty member in managing the course, evaluation of the course manager by the instructors, and mentoring in teaching can include students assisting a faculty member in teaching a class or coteaching. Increasing Educational Productivity: Innovative Approaches & Best Practices The increased technological accessibility and demand for school and teacher accountability, performance ratings of schools and teachers are increasingly common and are often publicly available. Although the empirical strategy is not conducive to determining the overall impact of the ratings, these results suggest the release of public ratings may help increase teacher performance in a school district. Contrary to the widely held belief that changing teacher performance is very difficult, these results show that a low-cost, low-intensity intervention can change the performance of low-performing teachers. Of particular policy relevance, informing teachers of their low ratings improves the performance of low-performing teachers. The Effect of Teacher Ratings on Teacher Performance Teacher productivity, as measured by value-added scores, has been shown to have substantial, long-term effects on student outcomes (Chetty, Friedman, and Rockoff 2014b). However, how teacher productivity changes in response to evaluations and feedback that use value-added scores is still unknown. Additionally, with the increased technological accessibility and demand for school and teacher accountability, performance ratings of schools and teachers are increasingly common and are often publicly available. As value-added ratings of teachers become increasingly common and public, information on how these ratings affect teachers is needed. Contrary to the widely held belief that changing teacher performance is very difficult, these results show that a low-cost, low-intensity intervention can change the performance of low-performing teachers. Of particular policy relevance, informing teachers of their low ratings improves the performance of low-performing teachers. However, there appears to be little negative impact of informing high-rated teachers of their ratings. Although the empirical strategy is not conducive to determining the overall impact of the ratings, these results suggest the release of public ratings may help increase teacher performance in a school district.

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