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CHAPTER
2

REVIEW
OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES

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This chapter will show the literature
and studies from foreign and local authors that are used by the researchers for
further understanding of the subject matter of this research.

Effects of School Location on Learner’s
Academic Performance in Makambako Town Council, Njombe

            The
objective of this study is to find out which distance affected the student’s
academic performance in Makambako Town council’s secondary schools. Mhiliwa
(2015), the researcher, conducted his research in five community secondary
schools in Makambako TC. The data used in his research was gathered involved 2
educational officers, 12 teachers and 200 students (consists of 80 boys and 120
girls) with the use of semi-structured interview guide, questionnaires and
documentary review, through random purposive sampling technique. By using
inductive analysis procedures, the data determined that the longer the distance
students travel in going to school, resulted in arriving to schools late and
with empty stomachs. The researcher claimed that location of school has lead to
mass failure to most students and some have caused dropout thus fail to attain
their educational goals.

The
Relationship between School Distance and Academic Achievement of Primary School
Pupils In Ovia North-East LGA, Edo State, Nigeria

            This study aimed to investigate the relationship between
academic achievement and school distance of primary school pupils. The
population was comprised by all the primary schools in the said location. A
structured questionnaire served as the instrument and was established using the
test re-test method to ensure its reliability. Using the Pearson Product Moment
Correlation (PPMC), the researchers analyzed the data gathered. The findings of
the study revealed that there is a positive, but very low positive, relationship
between the academic achievement of primary school pupils in Ovia North-East
Local Government Area and school distance. There is no significant relationship
explained between the two variables.

Long
journeys to school undermine Education

            “Long journeys to school have a negative impact on
student’s health and on their education achievement levels” said one of the
conclusions of a recent study on absenteeism by the scientific institute of the
German health Care insurance company AOK. According to VBE (Verband Bildung and
Erziehung) federal and national President Udo Beckmann, neither education
authorities nor national governments examined the impact of long travel hours on
the student’s health and learning abilities in going to or from schools. He
claimed that travelling for up to three hours per day tires a child’s body more
than in adults.

            He
also stated other consequential factors that affects a student physically and
psychologically like carrying a schoolbag longer, getting up earlier to go to
school and doing assignments later as well as reduction of free time necessary
for a balanced life. Because of these reasons, students may suffer the outcomes
like exhaustion and headaches.  Adults
that are part of a working environment have dealt and experienced such symptoms
and are mentally stronger than children, which are much more subject to stress
and exhaustion.

 

How
can Stress, Pollution, and Fatigue amidst Traffic Congestion Affect Your Health

            Along
EDSA and its nearby roads, thousands of commuters and motorist were caught by a
traffic congestion following a thunder storm that results to flood during rush
hour in Metro Manila. Because the traffic congestion was unpleasant, most
commuters’ spent hours on the road just to be home and some managed to go along
with their designated errand by past midnight.

            Considering
rain or protesters conquering the road are not the only reason for the traffic
that we’ve been experiencing, above all, traffic congestions had been part of
our daily life. Moreover, according to Numbeo.com (2015), a Serbia- based
online research database, the Philippines placed fifth on the categories with
the worse traffic in the whole world.

            A
traffic congestion will not only make the people late for their work or any
dinner but several studies shows that living in a city with a constant traffic
has negative effect on your health. In case of other commuters who were caught
in a traffic congestion were also deprived of sleep specifically to those who
are forced to wake up early in the morning to avoid rush hour and get to work
on time.

            According
to an article on The Telegraph (2013) “A week with less than six hours of sleep
each night can lead you to 711 changes in how genes work.” In additional, lack
of sleep can also affect the performance, attention, and long-term memory.
Additionally, sleep deprivation can cause anxiety, exhaustion, frustration,
impulsive behavior, lower immunity, and some mental health problems.

 

How
traffic affect commuters

In our daily lives commuters are
dealing with long traffic and other transportation hindrances. Based on LTO’s (Land
Transportation Office) study, in the past few years, there’s 2,101,148
registered vehicles around Metro Manila. The traffic worsens every year,
compared to past years. Inquirer.net listed some impacts of traffic on
commuters:

            Underperformance.
Based on the Philippine Statistics Authority, half of the 37 million workers in
the Philippines take the easiest route in going to their respected companies every
day. Billions of students are also depending on public transportations. Longer
the hours the students and workers deal with long traffic may affect their performance
physically and mentally.

            Unbalanced
time. People getting up earlier to prepare for work or school do not guarantee punctuality
since traffic is unpredictable, especially in times of rush hour.

            Overall
fatigue. Having to seat hours at the bus while thinking of problems at school
and work causes stress to commuters. With addition of pollution and heat may
result to having over fatigue and overtiredness.

            Inquirer.net
(2015) also suggested alternatives and tips on how commuters can protect their
health to prevent illnesses like drinking vitamins, exercise and balanced diet,
proper sleep, using masks for protection from air pollution. Traffic has become
part of every commuter’s lives, there is no easy way to escape from it, but
there is a way for commuters to overcome the negative effects from it by making
their lifestyles healthy as possible.

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