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Chapter 2 gives the perimeter of
the subject matter. Disaster preparedness and risk management pertaining to
earthquake is listed through literature reviews from other research and facts
that have been made by other authors. This research gives in depth
understanding on the role of disaster management planning in order to mitigate
the impact of earthquake.

Through literature
studies, the basic disaster management planning that should be applied to
minimize the impact of earthquakes is listed. Literature reviews on related
research by previous researcher are made to acknowledge the methods of data
collection that is preferably used for this type of research. In addition, the
studies are also made to know on the process of analyzing and synthesizing the
data.

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2.1       Overview on Earthquake    

An earthquake is a sudden, rapid
shaking of the earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the
earth’s surface. The function of earthquake is to release the accumulated
strain caused by an abrupt shift of rock along fracture in the earth or by
volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth
(Milch, 2010).

There are basically
four (4) types of earthquakes which have been classified by their mode of
generation. The most common are tectonic earthquakes, which happen when rocks
break suddenly in response to the various geological forces. The second kind
accompanies volcanic eruption. The third type are collapse earthquakes, which
could be triggered by the collapse of the roof of the mine and cavern, or
landslides. The last one is the man-made earthquake, which are produced by the
detonation of chemical or nuclear devices (Bolt, 2003).2.1.1    Seismotectonic of SabahSabah
has recorded the most earthquake in Malaysia since 1897. This consist of two
destructive earthquakes in 1976 and 1991 which caused substantial damage. The
North-West Sabah is influenced by the spreading and opening of the South China
Sea Basin while the Eastern Sabah influenced by the Cagayan Ridge Volcanic Arc
in te NE, the Sulu Trench and the Sulu Sea Volcanic Arc.Usually, the earthquake occurred in Sabah over a wide area. There are
three (3) main seismic zones which have a high concentration of earthquake,
namely:                               
i.           
The Central – North (Ranau) Zone,                             
ii.           
The Labuk Bay – Sandakan Basin Zone, and

                           
iii.           
The Dent – Semporna Peninsula Zone2.1.2    Post-Earthquake
Impacts and Damage AssessmentLast two
years on 5 June 2015, a moderate earthquake with a 6.0 magnitude had
stricken Sabah. It is the strongest earthquake that has hit Malaysia in 39
years since 1976 Lahad Datu earthquake.  The earthquake occurred due to
strike-slip fault mechanism with the epicenter depth of 10 km. Tremors were
felt in Ranau, Kundasang, Tambunan, Pendalaman, Tuaran, Kota Kinabalu and Kota
Belud in Sabah.Kajian Gempabumi Sabah 2015 site visit program involving several
universities in Malaysia was successfully held from 15th-17th June 2015.
According to Dr. Mariyana (2015) during the post-earthquake visit to
Kundasang-Ranau affected areas, she noticed that there was structural damage
appeared, unstable ground conditions and yet no water supply.A
year later, another visit from Earth Observatory of Singapore has found
buildings with cracked foundations, caved-in ceilings, and broken pillars that
result from the strong ground-shaking motions. The heavy rains that followed
after the earthquake caused debris flow, further damaging the area’s bridges
and buildings. The quake also triggered massive rock avalanches on Mount
Kinabalu.  “I was surprised to see such large-scale
landslides from a magnitude-6.0 earthquake. We usually expect to see landslides
of this scale with stronger earthquakes. Now Mount Kinabalu has these large
scars running down its slopes.” (Dr.Wang, 2016) From the information
above, it can be summarized that the impacts of the earthquake destruction in
Sabah are listed as follows:                               
i.           
Ground Cracks                             
ii.           
Structural Damage                           
iii.           
Avalanche                           
iv.           
Landslides                             
v.           
Injuries                           
vi.           
Fatalities                         
vii.           
Water Shortage                       
viii.           
Economic Losses 2.2       Disaster Preparedness2.2.1    Disasters
and CommunityIn order to build disaster
resilient, the community need to be empowered by getting engaged in all phases
of disaster management: prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and
recovery. According to Bishnu Pandey and Kenji Okazaki, this is important in
order to ensure that the community members can cope with the adverse effects of
natural hazards.2.2.2    Community-Based
Disaster Management (CBDM)Most of disaster response can be
characterized as command and control structure one that is top down and with
logistic center approach. We observe, lack of community participation that
results into failures in meeting the appropriate and vital humanitarian needs.In case of disasters,
the community are the first ones to become vulnerable to the effects of
hazardous events. The Community-Based Disaster Management (CBDM) promotes a
bottom-up approach working in harmony with the top-down approach to address the
challenges and difficulties. Local communities must be reinforced into
analyzing their hazardous conditions, vulnerabilities and capacities as they
see themselves.In this
community-based disaster management, the community are put at the forefront.
The approach is to provide them with more access and control over resources and
basic social services. Hence, this will help to increase the people’s capacity
to respond to emergencies.Bishnu Pandey and
Kenji Okazaki concluded in their findings that there are eight (8) major
lessons in regards to the issue of engaging and empowering communities which
are:        
i.           
Community empowerment and communication help
to achieve sustainability in CBDM     
ii.           
A holistic secure-livelihood approach enhances
sustainability   
iii.           
Community based action plans and training
improves problem solving skills in the community   
iv.           
Because of disasters are unpredictable, it is
important to maintain the projects and people’s awareness of disasters     
v.           
Transparency of activities and dissemination
of knowledge and information encourage people’s participation in activities   
vi.           
CBDM efforts need stable financial resources  vii.           
‘What is accepted by the community’ is more
important than ‘what is necessary’viii.           
Institutionalizing the community and the
private sectors can result in more sustainable disaster management programs 2.3       Case Studies on Training Initiatives by UNCRDThe United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) has
incorporated CBDM as its approach in disaster management planning under the
overall organizational mandate of sustainable regional development and human
security. 2.3.1    Sustainability
in Community Based Disaster ManagementIn the year 2002, UNCRD launched a three-year project on titled
“Sustainability in Community Based Disaster Management”. This project aims to
study the effectiveness of the grass – root projects and to suggest policy
input for sustainability. This project also will help to understand the gaps in
the community initiatives, and to take corrective actions in future. The goal of this project is to achieve safety and
sustainability of livelihoods for effective disaster mitigation which focusing
on three (3) key elements:                               
i.           
Self-help                             
ii.           
Cooperation                           
iii.           
Education In order to identify the key factors for successful
CBDM, six (6) case studies were chosen in the Asian region targeting three
specific hazards which are Cyclone (India and Philipines), Earthquake
(Indonesia and Nepal) and Floods (Bangladesh and Combodia). Field survey were
carried out and the findings were documented.  

 From the results, it can be seen that there are
eight (8) key factors involve for enhancing sustainability in CBDM:                               
i.           
The existence of “culture of
coping with crisis” and “culture of disaster reduction” exist                             
ii.           
Risk assessment process
involves participation of people and incorporating their perception of
vulnerability and capacity                           
iii.           
Community and supporting
agencies share common motivation and ownership for the initiation and
sustainability of CBDM                           
iv.           
Genuine people’s
participation within capacity building objectives, with specific focus on
sectoral groups like women, elderly, children and ethnic minorities                             
v.           
Well-delivered training
inputs in accordance with the objectives of the project and the needs of the
community training                           
vi.           
Wider stakeholder
involvement and participation                         
vii.           
Accumulation of physical,
technological and economic assets to reduce hazards and vulnerability                       
viii.           
Integration of these
projects into regular development planning and budgeting to ensure
sustainability 2.3.2    Afghan
Training and Livelihood InitiativesAs Afghanistan is an earthquake prone country, seismic risks need to be
incorporated in its rehabilitation process. UNCRD has carried out “Afghan
Training and Livelihood Initiative (ALTI)” from October 2002 to June 2003.This project focused on developments guidelines for
earthquake safe construction practices, training of masons and engineer, and
construction of model houses. These activities aimed to empower communities
with their participation in this process. As the results, these efforts help in
developing human resources, providing sustainable livelihood as well as linked
to the long terms recovery of the country. 2.3.3    Patanka
New Life (PNY) PlanIn January 2001, PNY was introduced as joint initiative of diverse
organizations including government, non-government, academics and international
organizations for community effective rehabilitation. The aim of PNY was to train and empower local masons
and communities with proper earthquake safer technologies. This was to ensure
confidence building and long-term use of traditional technologies. There were
two (2) major components involved:                               
i.           
Construction and rehabilitation
of model village                             
ii.           
Training and confidence
building of communities through shakeable demonstration testingAs the results, PNY was successful, especially in
terms of community involvement and ownership. PNY then was conceived as a model
program which sought to empower the effected community to the extent that they
are sufficiently resilient against future disasters. 2.3.4    School
Earthquake Safety InitiativesIn the year of 2003, UNCRD introduced School Earthquake Safety Initiative
through a project “Reducing Vulnerability of School Children to Earthquake” in
collaboration with UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) in
Asia-Pacific region.The aim is to make schools safe against earthquakes
and to build disaster resilient communities through self-help, cooperation and
education. The project includes retrofitting of school buildings, trainings on
safer construction and disaster education in school and communities.It can be seen from the initiatives that there are
three (3) major aspects of the community empowerment in earthquake disaster
risk management which involve seismic safety of school buildings, capacity
building of communities, and disaster awareness through education. Seismic safety of
school buildings:             This project includes
seismic vulnerability analysis of selected schools and retrofitting some of
them which cover prominent construction typology in the region. On the other
hand, this project lead to develop guidelines on the earthquake safe
construction which incorporates solutions to the practical problem of school
retrofitting. Capacity building of
communities:Retrofitting of school building serves as a
demonstration of proper earthquake technology. The local masons are trained on
earthquake design during the retrofitting of schools. Consideration is given to
the local practice, material availability, indigenous knowledge and
affordability in trainings on earthquake technology. Disaster education and
awareness:The project involves development and distribution of
educational booklets, posters and guidebook for earthquake disaster
preparedness and response. Those educational tools get verification and updated
through trainings and mock drills.The projects also develop an interactive educational
tool for awareness raising on earthquake disaster and simple seismic risk
assessment of buildings aiming to motivate households for planning seismic
upgrading of their houses. The process
of making safer schools can be used as an entry points to the communities at
risk to facilitate implementation of a training and capacity building programme
for earthquake disaster mitigation technology. It is also considered as the
prime objective of ensuring the safety of school children against future
earthquake. 2.4       Building Design GuidelineNew buildings will soon be able to better resist earthquakes and tremors
with a design code for buildings currently being drafted to raise safety
standards of structures (Star Online, 2017). We may not be in the Pacific Ring
of Fire, but let’s face it – Malaysians are not immune to earthquakes. “The Kumamoto earthquake this year is a good example of how seismic
hazards can be mitigated. We were already expecting such an earthquake event to
happen based on several decades worth of research studies conducted in Japan.
Fortunately, Japan’s building codes were modified several times from the
lessons learnt after each major earthquake, and this significantly reduced the
number of casualties” (Dr Wang, 2016). 2.4.1    Vulnerability
Assessment of Public BuildingsIn 2005, Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR), in collaboration with IKRAM Structure
Assessment Sdn. Bhd. And Structural Earthquake Engineering Research (SEER),
University Technology of Malaysia, undertook a study to assess the
vulnerability to earthquakes of selected (65) public building in Peninsular
Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak, and Labuan.The selected public buildings were based on the
structural type, design, building height, soil type, etc in order to achieve a
broad spectrum of the various types of buildings and thus reflecting the
available government buildings in Malaysia. The selected public buildings were
subjected to earthquake forces by going through series of checks using
established methodologies known as ATC 21 & ATC 22 and conducting linear
and non-linear dynamic analysis on susceptible buildings.ATC 21 is a handbook for seismic Evaluation of
Existing Buildings (Preliminary), published by the Applied Technology Council
for the Federal Emergency Management Agency, USA. The purpose of ATC 21 is to
determine the potential earthquake hazard and to identify building components
that present unacceptable risk to human lives. ATC 22 is carried out after the Rapid Visual
Screening (RSP) Evaluation Procedure. Each building is evaluated using a
checklist appropriate to its structural system type, as well as using a
checklist that comprised of questions in the form of positive evaluation
statements describing design characteristic, which is deemed to increase the
seismic resistance of the structure.The findings showed that the buildings’ structural
system is not critical to earthquake load. At least 50% of the selected
buildings in Sabah and Sarawak were found to suffer from concrete deterioration
problems, whilst in Peninsular Malaysia, most of the buildings were in good condition.
The highest damage index of building at moderate earthquake level indicates
that there no significant damage to the structure, but some non-structural
damages can be expected (as at the SK Kundasang and the teacher’s quarters,
Ranau,Sabah). 2.4.2    General
Seismic Design CriteriaIn 2005, Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) study on the vulnerability of public
buildings in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak, it was found that a number
of the standard public buildings were prone to earthquake damage if they were
exposed to such expected mild forces.  The JKR then developed a set of design criteria for
public buildings. The design criteria took into consideration the following
criteria:                               
i.           
Zone·        
Peak ground acceleration
from macrozonation study (for return period, Tr=500 years and 2500 years at
bedrock, T=0.2sec and T=1.0sec)·        
Peak surface acceleration
from microzonation study·        
Modified Mercalli Intensity                             
ii.           
Soil properties·        
Shear wave velocity (Vs)·        
Soil strength and modulus                           
iii.           
Important factors·        
Minor importance of structures·        
Ordinary structures·        
Important structures·        
Vital structures                           
iv.           
Regularity of structures·        
Plan view (mass, stiffness,
geometry)·        
Elevation view (mass,
stiffness, geometry)·        
Force transfer                             
v.           
Structural member design
concepts·        
Low ductility·        
Medium ductility·        
High ductility                             
vi.           
Design philosophy·        
No damage to non-structural
members under small earthquakes·        
No structural damage under
moderate earthquakes·        
No structural collapse under
strong earthquakes                         
vii.           
Design procedure·        
Static (static equivalent
force method)·        
Dynamic (modal response
method) The study recommended that the development of the
guidelines should start with the observation of various seismic design
standards from various countries. Since most earthquake-prone countries have
developed their own design standards, thus there is no need to rewrite the
design guidelines from scratch.It is strongly recommended that the Malaysian Rubber
Board (MRB) developed natural rubber bearing isolators be considered for an
effective protection of structures especially for critical buildings such as
hospitals, emergency facilities, schools, telecommunication centers, and
government administrative buildings, military and industrial facilities in
Malaysia. 2.5       Evacuation
Planning2.5.1    Category
of DisasterAccording to the evacuation characteristics, disasters are divided into
short-notice and little- or no-notice disasters. Short-notice disasters refer
to those that have a desirable lead time of between 24 to 72 hours (Wolshon,
2002). While little- or no-notice disasters are those occur unexpectedly or
with minimal warning (Zimmerman, Brodesky and Karp, 2007). In the case of earthquake, it is one typical example
of little- or no-notice disasters. This little- or non-notice disasters require
evacuation to take place immediately after the occurrence of the disaster event
(Chiu, 2006), little amount of time, information and resources are left between
when the precipitating incident happens and when a little- or no-notice
evacuation initiated (Zimmerman, Brodesky and Karp, 2007). 2.5.2    Evacuation
Planning for EarthquakeThe evacuation behaviours related to earthquakes are more complicated
than other natural disasters such as hurricane. Evacuation planning for
earthquake highlight the necessity of evacuating buildings, as well as
evacuation outside of the buildings (Guang, 2011).A building is designed to offer some spaces for
people to use which also include the building circulation. The circulation in
the building includes both horizontal and vertical connection. This connection
consists of corridors, staircases, escalators and elevators. Occupants in
buildings need to evacuate as soon as possible during an earthquake.The buildings’ capacity to resist earthquakes
determine the time travel for emergency evacuation (Shen, 2006). Another way to
improve evacuation efficiency is the architectural design for a building. Guang
(2011) claimed that geometries are used in architectural design to provide
fluent movement in buildings under the emergency condition.

Simulation models are used to analyse the building
evacuation performance in disasters. According to Gwynne (1999), there are 4
major factors identified to influence evacuation performance: (1) configuration
of building spaces, (2) environmental factors inside the building, (3)
procedures implemented in the building, and (4) the behaviour of the occupants.

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