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 Autogenic Fuel Qualito Quantifier

 

 

R.Ilayaraja1, Y.Devi2,
V.Dhaarni3, S.Subashini4

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1Assistant
Professor, 2,3,4UG Scholar

Sri Sairam Engineering College, Chennai,
Tamil Nadu, India

[email protected]

 

 

 

 

Abstract— The main objective of this paper is to display fuel quantity and
quality using the autogenic fuel qualito quantifier. This paper gives the idea
of developing quality meter at low cost with better accuracy. The main problem
with the existing system is that the values are displayed either empty or full
and there is no existing method for determining the fuel quality in vehicles.
The problem can be overcome by the proposed method. In this method, the values
are displayed digitally. Moreover the fuel quality is also checked with low
cost components and also the adulterant mixed with fuel can be easily found
out. This method uses Arduino platform as software for the quantity measurement
and Fuzzy Logic concept for the quality measurement. Among all the existing methods,
this method is simple, reliable and economical.

Keywords— LED, LCD, ASTM, Fuzzy systems, Fuzzy control, Level
measurement, sensors

 

                                                                                                                                                            
I.     INTRODUCTION

The vehicle models on road range from old to the
recent and their traffic is considered as a major source among others to urban air pollution.
Automobile fuel adulteration is
a clandestine and profit oriented operation. The
foreign substances are also called adulterants which when introduced alter and
degrade the quality of the base transport fuels2. Adulteration of diesel by mixing
kerosene is a common and widespread practice. These practices lead to losses in several areas, which include
damaging engines and worsening air quality4. To avoid this user should have a
technology which will detect the fuel adulteration, quantity of fuel being
refueled and emission caused by fuel3.
Developing the quality meter which displays the fuel quality is the main objective of this paper. In this, the quality of fuel is sensed  and the percentage of moisture in  the fuel is detected by means of the conductivity sensor.
At the same time, quantity of
fuel is
sensed by float sensor, while
petrol/diesel is being filled in the bunks. A fuzzy controller logic is used to process the output from
conductivity and float sensors. The fuzzy controller logic is programmed in the
arduino board. The output from this is displayed in the LCD. In this, adulteration is indicated by means
of the alarm system in vehicles and the changes produced will be indicated as values in the LCD .The alarm
system used here is buzzer .The buzzer will ON, if the certain percentage value
assigned is reduced. The Literature review made by The American Society for Testing and Materials
International (ASTM International) has developed and documented the test
methods for most of the widely used materials including petroleum products.
Many ASTM tests for the gasoline and diesel have been standardized and
documented. Some
of these tests involve the measure of suitability of fuels for use in vehicles from the point of air
pollution generated. Doping gasoline with solvents and
other chemicals can leave harmful deposits in engines1. Though no test is specifically designed to measure the adulteration of
petrol by mixing diesel or diesel by mixing kerosene, some tests namely Density
test, Evaporation test, Distillation test  may be used to determine the adulteration of
fuel also.
The following table shows the diesel and kerosene proportions with respect to
density

TABLE
1.0
Diesel and kerosene proportions with respect to density

S.NO

DIESEL
AND KEROSENE PROPORTIONS(V/V)

DENSITY
AT 15°C (G/ML)

KINEMATIC
VISCOSITY AT 40°C (CST)

1

Pure Diesel

0.8456

2.63

2

Prescribed level

0.82-0.86

2 to 3

3

85:15

0.8400

2.33

4

75:25

0.8390

2.16

5

65:35

0.8321

1.89

6

50:50

0.8304

1.83

7

25:75

0.8234

1.5

 

The mixing of
kerosene and light diesel oil with diesel or naphtha and other solvents with
petrol which is not shown in routine tests is known as lax testing standards.
Yet, a small mix of 10-15 percent without violating the standards can help to
reap lucrative profits as much as Rs 25000 profit per day just by mixing 15
percent naphtha with petrol. Most developing country governments have not yet
established a monitoring regime and system of fines that can act as a strong
deterrent to fuel adulteration. The non-availability of mechanism and instruments
for spot checking the quality of fuels is the main cause for differential
pricing and easy availability of adulterants in market.

II. BLOCK
DIAGRAM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 2.0 Overall Block Diagram

 

The block
diagram shown in fig 2.0 consists of float sensor, conductivity sensor,
arduino board, LCD and alarm module. The Float sensor measures quantity of fuel
being filled. The conductivity sensor detects the percentage of moisture in the
fuel. The fuzzy controller logic is programmed in arduino such that the logic is
used to process the output. The output from the controller is displayed in LCD.
An alarm system is used to indicate the fuel adulteration in vehicles. A 9V
battery of type 6F22 is used for the power supply. The specifications of
battery are described as follows:

 

A. Specifications of battery

 

Model
Number: 9V 6F 22

Battery
Type: Zinc Carbon

Size:
6F22 006P

Jacket:
Metal Single

Battery
Dimensions (mm): L- 26.5, H – 48.5, W – 17.5 (Max)

Nominal
Voltage (V):9V

Discharge
Resistance (?): 620

Cut-off
Voltage (V): 5.4

Operating
Temp: -5°C to 55°C

Typical
Weight: 37 grams

Typical
Volume: 20.3 cubic centimeters

 

                                                                                                                                      
II.    HARDWARE
SPECIFICATIONS

 

A.   
Float sensor

 

Float sensor
used here is 100 ohm fuel sender where level of the fuel is measured by
installing it in fuel tank from above. In this float sensor the switch may be
used in an indicator, an alarm or any other devices. The value of the float
sensor increases in litres with decrease in its resistance value. The included
water proof seal will prevent the fuel leakage. The tank will read ‘Empty’ when
the float is at full extension, 128 mm from the top of the tank. The tank will
read ‘Full’ when the float is 40 mm from the top of the sender.

 

 

 

1)  Installation: 

 

·            
The
hole for the fuel tank should be 40 mm diameter.

·            
The
bolt centers are 40 mm apart.

·            
This
fuel sender has a 100 ohm output and it is compatible with all metersv and any other
fuel meter that accepts a 100 ohm input.

 

2)  Float sensor connection with
arduino and to LCD:

 

 

Fig 3.0  connection diagram of
float sensor with arduino and LCD

 

3)  Quantity sensor reading
equivalence:

 

TABLE 3.0 Sensor reading vs. quantity in litres

 

SENSOR READING
(IN V)

QUANTITY(IN L)

0

0

.22125

1

.4425

2

.66375

3

.885

4

1.10625

5

1.3275

6

1.54875

7

1.77

8

 

B.   
Conductivity sensor

 

This
sensor is used to measure the moisture and it provides a digital output when
threshold of moisture is exceeded. The module is based on LM393 operational
amplifier and is used as comparator. It includes the electronic module and a
printed circuit board that collects the fuel. The conductivity sensor used here
is moisture type sensor that sends the signal to the LM393 op-amp and to the
output devices.

 

 

1)  LM393  Op-amp:

 

The
LM393 is a dual differential comparator; this means that it accepts 2 inputs
for comparison. It compares these voltage inputs and determines which value is
larger. Electronic decisions can be made based on which input is greater and
which input is smaller. Thus, a comparator is very useful in circuits where we
measure levels and want our circuit to act a certain way based on whether the
level of an input is greater or smaller than a certain threshold.

 

2)  Conductivity
sensor connection with arduino:

 

Fig 3.1  connection diagram of arduino with
conductivity sensor

 

C.   
 Arduino uno
microcontroller

 

Arduino
is open source hardware. Arduino/Genuino Uno is a microcontroller board based
on the ATMEGA328.

It
is widely used in the cases where a lot of physical inputs are necessary.

 

1)  Specifications:

 

Power: 6 V to 20 V
Memory:32KB,2KB of SRAM and 1KB of
EEPROM
I/O: 5V
Current : 20 mA
Communication: via computer or microcontroller,
via UART TTL(5 V)

 

D.   
Output
devices

 

1)  LCD:

 

Liquid
Crystal Display is a flat panel display used in digital-watches, cameras and
many portable computers. Liquid crystals are the intermediate phases
between liquid and crystal 10.
Here, the LCD is used to display the quality and quantity of the fuel.

 

a)  LCD connection with arduino:

 

Here
16×2 LCD is used which has 16 pins and can be operated in 4-bit mode or 8-bit
mode. For 4-bit mode, the data pins DB4 to DB7 are used whereas for 8-bit mode
all the data pins have been used.

·        
 LCD Gnd pin to Ground

·        
 LCD Vcc pin to 5V

·        
 LCD VEE pin to wiper

·        
 LCD RS pin to digital pin 12

·        
 LCD R/W pin to ground

·        
 LCD Enable pin to digital pin 11

·        
 LCD D4 pin to digital pin 5

·        
 LCD D5 pin to digital pin 4

·        
 LCD D6 pin to digital pin 3

·        
 LCD D7 pin to digital pin 2

·        
 LCD Led+ pin to 5V

·        
 LCD Led-pin to ground

 

Fig 3.2   LCD connection
with arduino

2)  LED:

 

A
light emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor device that emits  visible light when an electric current passes
through it9. Thus, the LED’s are used for indication purpose and it glows
according to the result.

 

3)  Buzzer:

 

A
buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device used for alarming purposes.
Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm devices, timers and
confirmation of user inputs. The buzzer should be connected to arduino as I/O
to any digital pin.

 

IV.
 SOFTWARE
DESCRIPTION

 

A.  Arduino software

 

A
program for Arduino can be written in any programming language so that the
compiler produces binary machine code for the target processor. It includes a
code editor with features such as text cutting and pasting, searching and
replacing text, automatic indenting, brace matching, and syntax highlighting,
and provides simple method to compile and upload programs to an Arduino board. Arduino
is an open-source platform 7 used for constructing and programing of
electronics. It can receive and send information to most devices and even
through the internet to cammand the specific electronic device. it uses a
hardware called arduino uno 8 circuit board and software programme to
programme the board.An Arduino board can be purchased or pre-assembled because
the hardware design is open source are built by hand. A pre-assembled Arduino
board includes a microcontroller; this microcontroller is programmed using
Arduino programming language and the Arduino development environment. In
essence, this platform provides a way to build and program electronic
components. The Arduino software supports the languages C and C++ using special
rules of code structuring. The Arduino software contains a library for wiring
projects, which provides many common input and output procedures. User-written
code only requires two basic functions, for starting the sketch (i.e) loop and
setup. The Arduino software converts the executable code into a text file in
hexadecimal encoding that is loaded into the Arduino board by a boot loader
program in the board’s firmware.

 

v.  FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR QUALITY MEASUREMENT

 

A.  Fuzzy
set concept

 

The difference between crisp (i.e., classical) and fuzzy
sets is established by introducing a membership function. Consider a finite set
X={x1, x2…, xn} which will be considered the universal set in what follows.
The subset A of X consisting of the single elementx1can be described by the n
dimensional membership vector Z(A) = (1,0,0,…,0), where the convention has
been adopted that a 1 at the  ith
position indicates that xi belongs to A. The set B composed of the elements x1
and xn is described by the vector Z (B) = (1, 0, 0, …. , 1).

 

B.  Different
approaches to the analysis of Fuzzy concepts

 

In mathematical logic, computer
programming, philosophy and linguistics fuzzy concepts can be analyzed and
defined more accurately or comprehensively, by describing or modeling the
concepts using the terms of fuzzy logic or other sub structural logics. More
generally, clarification techniques can be used such as:

·        
Contextualizing the concept by defining the setting or situation
in which the concept is used (context).

·        
Identifying the intention, purpose, aim or goal associated with
the concept.

·        
Comparing and contrasting the concept with related ideas in the
present or the past (comparative and comparative research).

·        
Creating a model, likeness, analogy, metaphor, prototype or
narrative which shows what the concept is about or how it is applied
(isomorphism or simulation).

·        
Mapping or graphing the applications of the concept using some
basic parameters (visualization).

·        
Examining ”how likely” it is that the concept applies,
statistically or intuitively (probability theory).  

·        
Engaging
in a dialogue or repeated discussion, to exchange ideas about how to get
specific about what it means and how to clear it up (scrum method).

·        
Assembling
different applications of the concept to different but related sets (Boolean
logic).

 

C.  Control
with Fuzzy logic

 

A
fuzzy controller is a regulating system whose modus operand is specified with
fuzzy rules. In general it uses a small set of rules. The fuzzy logic
controller is an intelligent controller and this is its most added advantage of6.The
measurements are processed in their fuzzified form, fuzzy inferences are
computed, and the result is defuzzified, that is, it is transformed back into a
specific number.  Fuzzy Logic controller (FLC) is usually
designed by formulating implicit knowledge of an expert into a set of
linguistic variables and fuzzy rules5. 

 

D.  Rule base

 

·        
If
00

 
LOW

 
HIGH

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
VOUT2>40

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
HIGH

 
LOW

 
VOUT2>80

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
HIGH

 
VOUT2>100

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
LOW

F.  Algorithm

 

Step1: Define linguistic
variables and terms. Linguistic variables are input and output variables are in
the form of simple words or sentences.

Step 2: Construct membership
functions for them.

Step 3: Construct knowledge
base rules.

Step 4: Obtain fuzzy value.

Step 5: Perform defuzzification.

 

G.  Flowchart

 

Fig 5.0 Flowchart

 

VI. PROGRAM CODE FOR DETERMINING QUALITY AND QUANTITY

 

#include
//Load Liquid Crystal Library

LiquidCrystalLCD(11,10,9,2,3,4,5);  //Create Liquid Crystal Object called LCD

constint
sensor=A0;

constint
sensor1=A1;// Assigning analog pin A1 to variable ‘sensor’

floatvout;  //temporary variable to hold sensor reading

float
vout1;

float
vout2;

void
setup()

pinMode(6,
OUTPUT); 

pinMode(7,
OUTPUT); 

pinMode(8,
OUTPUT); 

pinMode(12,
OUTPUT);

digitalWrite(6,
LOW);   // turn the Buzzer off

digitalWrite(7,
LOW);   // turn the Buzzer off

digitalWrite(8,
HIGH);   // turn the Buzzer off

digitalWrite(12,
LOW);   // turn the Buzzer off

Serial.begin(9600);

LCD.begin(16,2);
//Tell Arduino to start your 16 column 2 row LCD

LCD.setCursor(1,0);  //Set LCD cursor to upper left corner, column
0, row 0

LCD.print(“QUANTITY:”); 

LCD.setCursor(1,1);  //Set LCD cursor to upper left corner, column
0, row 048

LCD.print(“QUALITY
:”);

}

void
loop()

{

vout=analogRead(sensor);

vout=(vout*5)/1023;

vout=vout-0.73;

vout=vout/0.22125;
// for 8 lts

if(vout0
&& vout2 40
&& vout2 80
&& vout2

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