Authentication means that the user or device attempting to access a service must prove their identity before being granted access. This can be by providing a unique string that the receiving or through a set of credentials. This can be a single or multi-layer such as with a username and password or also having a unique and time sensitive pin to enter. This prevents users or other systems from accessing materials in any way if they do not pass this first step. Encryption is key in preventing data from being observed or passed in a way that would allow it to be read by anyone other than the intended party. It is to obfuscate the data and adding a layer of security through an algorithm that systematically changes the data using a key or password of which can only be brought back to the data’s original state with that same exact key. There are symmetric and asymmetric keys as well as certificates that can accomplish this. A symmetric key is shared between two points while an asymmetric key has a two part public and private key that is needed to decrypt the data.Authorization seems similar to authentication in that it allows users or systems to access materials but helps determine which materials and how they are allowed to access them. All users might be able to view material but only members of a certain role may be able to edit. This is done with the GRANT, DENY, and REVOKE commands or the user interface to manage how users and database roles have permissions to various aspects of a database such as the tables, functions, or if they can only read but not edit. Change Tracking is the log all data modifying transactions for viewing later and troubleshooting, whether it is deletion, edits, or insert. This allows others to track down when changes are made and to what extent and who made the change. This can be done using AFTER triggers or through CDC, change data capture., which is implemented through a system stored procedure. This CDC process allows the user to understand the changes that are about to happen as well as log those changes for later viewing.