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The cervix is a part of
the human female reproductive system. It is the lower region of the uterus and
is also known as cervix uteri. (Latin, for neck of the uterus ).


The cervical canal is
lined with a layer of columnar cells. The outer region, or the ecto-cervix is
made of a number of layers of cells, topped with flat cells.

The two types of cells
meet at the squamo-columnar junction.


Almost 99 percent of the
times, the causative agent is Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) that causes
abnormalities in the epithelium, which can lead to cancer of the cervix.

HPV is a virus that has
numerous strains, many of which are more likely to cause pre-cancerous changes
in the cervical lining, mainly in the transformation zone, which is the usual
region for the cancer to begin.





Almost all types of
cervical cancers are caused by long-lasting infection with any of the
infectious strains of HPV. There are certain cases, where people with HPV do
not develop cancer.


A type of HPV called
“high-risk” HPV has been shown to cause cancers of the cervix as well as cancer
of penis in men. HPV’s are also found to cause cancers of the mouth, throat and
anus in both sexes.


HPV infection is spread
through sexual contact or skin-to-skin contact. It is a common infection that
usually is resolved on its own. In a few women, the infection stays for a long
period of time, thus causing cancer due to certain changes in the cells.





The changes in the
epithelial cells can be detected by cervical cancer screening or otherwise
called, Pap testing.

In this test, a surface
sample of cells from the cervix is taken and tested for its appearance.

The abnormally appearing
cells that are not cancerous but may be pre-cancerous, are called Dysplasia.

This can be identified at the time of Pap test, and is called Squamous
Intraepithelial Lesion (SIL).

Intra-epithelial Neoplasia (CIN) are the precancerous changes that are observed
in biopsies.


After detection of
abnormal cells in the Pap smear test, a colonoscopy procedure is employed that
uses a lighted microscope to examine the surface of cervix, after which a small
tissue sample is taken to test for cancer. This procedure is called biopsy.


Another procedure,
called Conization, is the process of removing a cone-shaped portion of the
cervix, around the canal. This is done using a loop of wire that is heated by
electric current , called Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure or LEEP,
which is performed with local anesthetic. When general anesthesia is used , the
procedure is called “Cold knife Conization”.


Additional tests like
X-rays, CT-scan, MRI, Cystoscopy and Proctoscopy may be necessary.





The extent to which
cancerous tumors have spread in the body during diagnosis is termed as the
“stage” of cancer.

Determining the stage of
cancer helps the doctor to give the best treatment plan to the patient.


Cervical cancer is
classified from stage I to stage IV, with many sub-categories.


0:  This stage is not considered as true cancer
and the abnormal cells are present only on the surface of the cervix. This
stage is commonly called Carcinoma in-situ (CIS)


I:  The tumor is present in a trace quantity and
has not spread to any other parts of the body.


II:  Here, the cancer has spread to regions beyond
the cervix and even the uterus, but hasn’t reached the pelvic region yet.


III: The
tumors have spread to the pelvic region and lower regions of the vagina, maybe
even causing blockage in the ureters.


IV:  This stage is said to be the most advanced
stage. The tumors would be found in the bladders, rectum and even other areas
of the whole body.





Different forms of
treatments are available for cervical cancer, such as surgery, radiation
therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, etc. depending upon the extremity of
spreading of tumors.


Surgery is used to
remove the tumor causing cancer, mainly in the early stages of tumors.

Hysterectomy is suggested for older women, wherein their uterus is removed.

Pelvic exenteration
removes the uterus, lymph nodes that surround it along with other organs near
the cancerous tumor.


Radiation therapy uses
radiation to shrink the cancer. It can be an external therapy or
brachytherapy,that follows the procedure of inserting radioactive source near
the tumor.

Radiotherapy is used for
treatment combining it with chemotherapy, mainly for higher stages of cancer.


Side effects of

Fatigue, diarrhea,
nausea, irritation in radiated area, menstrual changes etc.


Side effects of
chemotherapy are similar, and it includes hair loss, loss of appetite, mouth
sores, etc.




The most common signs or
symptoms of cervical cancer include abnormal vaginal bleeding, especially after
menopause; increased vaginal discharge and pelvic pain.




Apart from HPV, there
are other factors that have been found to have an effect on epithelial cells to
turn cancerous.

They include:

1. Smoking

2.HIV infection

of the immune system

4.Presence of
Chlamydia in the past, or present.


usage of oral contraceptives

7.Four, or more
full term pregnancies

and a full-term pregnancy before the age of 17

history of cervical cancer




Cervical cancer can be
prevented with vaccination and other detection techniques to observe the
changes in the cervix.

Vaccines are now
available against the common strains of HPV.

Gardasil and Gardasil 9
are the common vaccines used. Gardasil has proven to be very effective against
the four most common HPV types, i.e, 6,11,16 and 18.

Gardasil 9 is an
advanced version, that is effective against nine types of HPV.


Vaccination must be
taken before any sexual activity for its complete effectiveness.

Gardasil is also recommended
for males, through age 9 to 25.








Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
is a small and Un-enveloped DNA virus that normally affects mucosal cells.

The genome of an HPV has
6 early, or E Genes, that control the viral genes and their behavior. They also
have 2 late, or L genes, that instruct for the virus shell.


In the development of
cancer. E6 an E7 are the 2 most important genes, which must be turned on. If
they turn off, the suicide machinery is activated by the cell, and the cell
kills itself, thus averting cancer. This property is associated only high-risk
strains of HPV.


p53 protein stops cell-growth of the cells that have damaged DNA. But E6 binds
to p53, thus inactivating it. Hence, mutated cells begin to grow and divide.


generally tends to promote the growth of cells that do not posses p53, and
kills the cells that do.

protein called Rb protein is present in the cells. This generally slows down
the growth of cells that have damaged DNA. E7 binds to Rb protein, thus
inhibiting the protein from performing its role, leading to cancer.




Cervical cancer is
considered to be the 3rd most common cancer in women, across the

The rates do vary in
many places, ranging from less than 1 to even more than 60 cases per 1 lakh

Delayed diagnosis
leading to poorer outcomes is common in developing countries, and it has become
one of the leading causes of death (cancer related)




Genetic Engineering

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