Site Loader
Rock Street, San Francisco

Anderson 3Introduction Would you take the risk of travelling to a country where one mosquito bite can lead to an infectious disease causing health complications? Within the last year there has been a global outbreak of the life-threatening Zika virus in countries such as South America, Central America, Africa and some parts of Asia. From joint pain and fever to deformities and even possible death of a fetus, increased health concerns nearly created panic when hundreds of thousands of Americans travelled to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to see the 2016 Summer Olympic. To date, there is no cure and more than six hundred cases of Zika infections that have been reported, as a result of transmission through a simple mosquito bite or unprotected to sexual intercourse.1Brief History of Zika VirusThe Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 and named after the Zika Forest in Uganda. In 1952, the first human cases of Zika were detected and since then, outbreaks of Zika have been reported in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Before 2007, at least 14 cases of Zika had been documented, although other cases were likely to have occurred and were not reported. Because the symptoms of Zika are similar to those of many other diseases, many cases may not have been recognized. By 2015, sexual and other routes of human to human transmission became a concern as a result of detection of viral RNA in serum, saliva and urine. Although the virus most rapidly spread through mosquitoes, this data suggested a secondary path could lead to even greater spread.The data also caused another serious concern regarding pathogenesis. With Zika apparently spreading within the body to places not previously encountered, the concept of a viral evolution became more apparent.2.3PathogenesisSince many haven’t been exposed to Zika as much in the 21st century much isn’t known about it. But because the virus is closely related to the flavivirus (i.e. Dengue, Yellow Fever, Ebola), scientist has associated the spreading of the disease with a bite from an infected female Aedes mosquito. The Aedes genus has been associated with the outbreak of multiple diseases all around the world emerging as a threat to tropical areas Back in 2007, Yap Islands located outside Africa and Asia was reported to have been affected by the Zika Virus making it the world’s first Zika outbreak.5 As stated before, because many cases have not been reported about the virus, doctors didn’t know where to start research. However, doctors obtained serum samples from patients and interviewed patients for information on clinical signs and symptoms. Zika virus disease was confirmed by a finding of Zika virus RNA or a specific neutralizing antibody response to Zika virus in the serum. Patients with IgM antibody against Zika virus who had a potentially cross-reactive neutralizing-antibody response were classified as having probable Zika virus disease.6 After the events of the outbreak, the has lead to researchers trying to find ways and cures as to finding out how mosquitoes have the ability to transmit a disease that can be deadly and affect a population.Transmission of Zika Within the last year researchers have learned that the Zika virus can be transmitted through mosquitoes as discussed earlier. The blood that the mosquito acquires from its blood meal reaches the salivary gland, where it’s transmitted through the skin of a new host (humans).7 Entering from the skin, the virus spreads to the draining lymph node, where it is amplified, resulting in viraemia and haematogenous dissemination to peripheral tissues and visceral organs. In humans, the Zika virus can be found in blood typically within 10 days of the infection with the signs of symptoms including a fever, red eyes, rash and joint pain.  After the serious outbreak of the Zika Virus in Yap Islands, in places such as Africa there has been reports dating back to 2008 such as a twenty-seven year old Australian man being contracted with the Zika virus from getting bitten by a monkey in Bali a few days later, showing signs of a fever and a rash.7 Experts predict that the monkey was in infected by a mosquito prior to  encountering the the victim. In fact, researchers found that the virus was spreaded not only by a mosquito but also by semen, from pregnant women to their fetus, semen, saliva, blood transfusions and a laboratory with open wounds.6   Health RisksZika Virus has been linked to a number of diseases that can affect your immunity and cause birth defects. Guillain-Barre Syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which your immune system attacks the nerve cells in your body, symptoms include weakness and tingling from the legs to the upper body.7  Although this disease is rare, occurring 1 or 2 in every 100,000 , GBS has been directly linked to Zika. On average, there have been 3,000 to 6,000 people in the United States that have been diagnosed GBS, but unfortunately there is no cure for the disease. Doctors only have managed to find treatments that can make one recover quickly. Also,  Zika can be passed down from an infected pregnant mother to her unborn child causing the baby to have birth defects such as Microcephaly, impaired growth, hearing loss and other brain defects. Babies that are born with the Microcephaly tend to have a smaller head comparing to those in their age group, meaning that they have a hard time developing properly. The baby may experience some damage in the eye due to the brain not being developed properly. The Center for Disease Control (CDC), in a recent study stated about fifteen percent of women during their first trimester end up having an affected baby. The

Post Author: admin


I'm Eunice!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out