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applying the scales results have been shown that life quality of post-menopausal
women is lower than premenopausal women and psychological conflicts, oxidative stress,
depression and anxiety is higher in women with post menopause.

other study states menopausal are a
natural period of physiological adaptation. This result as a decreasement in
reproduction  ofhormones and could be
mild.some women may face many psychological problems but some may not.The basic
aim of this study is to assess health challenges and psychological effects in a
rural area of Nigeria of middle aged women. The total sample is 120 women age
40 to 55 years.The descriptive surveywas used as semi structured questionnaire.
The results have been shown that most of the women with menopause experiences
psychological distress and challenges. They also face night sweats, low libido,
weightgain, dizziness and many heart problems.Women should be enough educated
prior to this period.

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The menopausal stage is very important in women because it is a
psychological variation that effect their social, psychological and emotional
phases. As a result sleep problems, chronic fatigue, sadness feelings,
hopelessness, emptiness, irritability, withdrawal with society,  dysphoria and changes in appetite could be
occurred. It can affect the thinking way, concentration and judgmental
abilities. It is a major transitional point of reproduction as eggs could not
be produced in ovaries and naturally a woman is not capable to get pregnant.
Women use problem focused, appraisal focused and emotion focused strategies
during menopausal period to cope with stress. 100 women were selected as a sample.
Results have been shown that 55% women face mild problems and 78% women adapted
the strategies to overcome the stress and post-menopausal women face more psychological

study is conducted in srilanka.  In this
study investigate about the reason of menopause and effect on women of
srilanka. Menopause is a step of a woman’s life when hormonal changes cause
menstruation to stop permanently. Totally, women face 34 different symptoms of
menopause. Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by several tools, and can be
influenced by various socio-demographic factors. The objective of this study is
to undergo a survey of the symptoms and awareness associated with menopause
among Sri Lankan academic women from the age 25 to 60. By using modified MRS
(Menopause Rating Scale) questionnaire, 50 Sri Lankan women aged 25-60 years
were interviewed to document of 10 symptoms divided into somatic, psychological
and physiological symptoms which are commonly associated with menopause. The
mean age of menopause was 52 years (range 47 – 56 years). The most extensive
symptoms reported were joint and muscular pains (76%); physical and mental
exhaustion (58%); and concentration and sleeping problems (60%) followed by
symptoms of hot flushes and night sweating (66%); irritability (64%); itching
in private parts (68%); anxiety (92%); depressive mood (80%). Correspond to
other studies on Indian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal
symptoms of sleeping problems physical and mental exhaustion was lower compared
to studies on Sri Lankan women. The prevalence of menopausal symptoms was
measured using modified MRS in this study. Very few studies have been
undertaken regarding the importance of women’s awareness level about the
menopause phenomenon in their mental, psychological, and physical health,
therefore this research finding will contribute to the available body of
knowledge in this area.

This study was
to identify correlations of the knowledge, attitude, symptoms and management
toward menopause in middle-aged women. Midlife women’s knowledge, positive
attitudes and management toward menopause may improve the quality of peri and
post-menopause life Growth of the population of women, which was relatively
faster than that of men population. Peri- and post-menopause women experience a
wide range of menopause symptoms, and their lifestyle patterns and physical,
psychological, social and spiritual adaptation directly affecting elderly
health improvement are considerably crucial. Many middle-aged women worry about
losing their womanhood and attractiveness after menopause, and may suffer from
the physical symptoms of menopause. While, peri-menopausal
women may experience a sense of loss and worthlessness after they stop
giving values to maternal roles as their children grow and become independent.
Women facing postmenopausal changes can lead a richer life by looking at life
in a positive perspective as an opportunity for inner maturity. And postmenopausal women at midlife
experience various problems and difficulty in adapting to climacteric changes
has a direct effect on elderly women’s health, health-promoting lifestyle
patterns and psychological adaptation have been considered as important issues.
Middle-aged women with more knowledge of menopause were more likely to manage
menopause better, and those having more negative attitudes toward menopause
were found to experience negative menopause symptoms Midlife women with severe
menopause symptoms were more likely to have a lower quality of life

Menopause age is
constant; an increase in life expectancy has resulted in an increase of the
menopause period in women.  This study
was done to assess women’s awareness level about symptoms and complications of
menopause and methods of their prevention. This cross-health care centers. The
research was conducted using a questionnaire with regular random sampling
method. The analysis of obtained findings was done by SPSS statistical software
and statistical tests. Results: Based on their total score, 48.6% of women had
good awareness, 24.1% of them had average awareness, and 27.3% of them had low
awareness. Eighty-five percent of the participants had read or heard some
topics about menopause from their relatives (26.8%), friends (25.5%), health
care staffs (20%), books and journals (10.5%), and television or radio (8.6%).
Women’s awareness level had significant correlation with child number, job,
education, income, hearing or reading text about menopause and their
informational source, but awareness did not have significant correlation with
age and being menopausal. The findings of this study, the rate of participants’

One billion women have experienced menopause worldwide. The
experience of menopause is influenced by beliefs and values prevalent in the
sociocultural setting, the background of the women, and the ways in which the
women approach changes in this phase of life. Although it is essential to
provide appropriate support to women experiencing menopause, no systematic
reviews have so far been conducted that focus on menopause experienced by women
worldwide. Hot flushes and night sweats are the strongest symptoms of those
reported by women affected by the changes experienced during menopause.
Positive `or negative ways in which each woman approaches the changes during
menopause are influenced by their personal, family and sociocultural
background. Menopause is an important life event that may have a negative influence
on quality of life. Work ability, a concept widely used in occupational health,
can predict both future impairment and duration of sickness absence. The aim of
this study was to examine the impact of menopausal symptoms on work ability.

Cognitive changes and mood instability are frequent symptoms
reported by menopausal women, the degree to which the decline in estrogen
production is responsible is not yet clear. Several lines of evidence suggest
that estrogen may produce its effects on cognition and mood through modulation
of serotonergic function. To test this hypothesis, we used the tryptophan
depletion (TD) paradigm to lower central serotonin levels and pharmacologically
manipulated estrogen levels in healthy menopausal women. We examined the individual
and combined effects of estradiol and serotonin on working memory, emotion
processing and task-related brain activation. Eight healthy predominantly early
postmenopausal women underwent TD or sham depletion followed by functional
magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) both before and after short-term transdermal
estradiol 75-150 ug/d administration. There was an estradiol treatment by TD
interaction for brain activation during performance on both the N-back Task
(working memory) and Emotion Identification Task (affective processing). During
the 2-back condition, TD attenuated activation prior to, but not after,
estradiol treatment in the right and left dorsal lateral prefrontal and middle
frontal/cingulate gyrus. During emotion identification, TD heightened
activation in the orbital frontal cortex and bilateral amygdala, and this
effect was attenuated by estradiol treatment. These results provide preliminary
evidence that serotonergic effects directly mediate the impact of estrogen on
brain activation during working memory and affective processing.

Preclinical studies suggest that estrogen affects neural
structure and function in mature animals; clinical studies are less conclusive
with many, but not all, studies showing a positive influence of estrogen on
verbal memory in postmenopausal women.

 A research project entitled Women, Work and
the Menopause: Releasing the Potential of Older Professional Women. Menopause
is a ‘silent issue’ for most organisations, and older women represent a group
whose working lives, experiences and aspirations are poorly understood by
employers, national governments and academic researchers alike. This is highly
unfortunate given that women aged 45 years and over comprise 17% of the ageing
Australian workforce (Tilly et al., 2013), meaning that over one million
working women are currently going through, or have already gone through, the
menopause. The broad aim of this project was therefore to examine the
occupational health and well-being of older women, with a particular emphasis
on understanding women’s experiences of menopause at work. More specifically,
the project set out to generate insights on five key areas: 1. Older women’s
health and well-being; 2. The relationship between menopause-related symptoms
and four specific work outcomes (work engagement, job satisfaction,
organisational commitment, intention to quit); 3. Actual and desired levels of
organisational support for women experiencing menopause; 4. Work-related and
organisational factors that exacerbate or ameliorate women’s experiences of
menopause in the workplace; and 5. Women’s first-hand experiences, beliefs and
attitudes towards menopause at work. More than 80%
of women face psychological and physical problems because of menopause.  The basic aim of this study is to investigate
effects of menopause on women health. This study used the question that ” are
the symptoms of menopause effect women’s health?”

Descriptive design was used in this
study as a method. 90 women were took from department of gynecology and their
age range was between the 40 to 60 years.

Results showed that hot flushes,
dissatisfied personal life, poor memory, change in desires of sex and low
backache were the most major and sever symptoms of physical, psychosocial and
vasomotor domains. There are many diseases that directly attack on women’ s
heath. Menopause is the main major factor of diseases. Most of the women ignore
their health related issue. Key and major aspect is to make preventions of such

The basic aim of this study was to
investigate the 11 major diseases such as musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes
mellitus, vasomotor symptoms, metabolic syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease, cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, cancer, depression and
sleep disturbances. This study is a prospective study and was conducted in
department of OBGYN in Nepal. This study has 3 main objectives, to see the
menopausal age, middle life health issues of females and to measure the
prevalence rate of women with menopausal issues.

500 women were
conduct in this study and they all were interviewed in 10 months and their age
range was 45 to 60 years old. In this study, slandered questionnaire was
administered to women after conducted their clinical examination and history
and MRS (rating scale of menopause) used to measure the menopausal scores. Mean
of the menopause was 49.9%. 

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