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Abstract

 

            In today’s society, technology has
become a vital part of our daily lives. Americans use technology in various
forms. Seeing that technology is such a vital resource that can be is easily used,
the goal of this study is to see how technology can help elementary educators
improve the effects of student’s engagement and achievement. The researcher
will be able to achieve this task by comparing reading scores of two different
school districts, a district that is participating in the Google Chromebook
one-to-one initiative, compared to a school district that is not participating
in this initiative. The researcher will collect data from participating
teachers by means of open response questionnaire. The expectation of the study
would be to see that the district with the one-to-one technology will have a
higher achievement level in reading test scores, and an increased motivation
during the 2018-2019 school year.

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Chapter
One: Introduction

Problem
Statement

            As an educator, there are many concerns we have for our students.
Student engagement and achievement is one of those concerns. “As school districts around
the country consider investments in technology in an effort to improve student outcomes,
a new report from the Alliance for Excellent Education and the Stanford Center for Opportunity
Policy in Education (SCOPE) finds that technology – when implemented
properly -can produce significant gains in student achievement and boost
engagement, particularly among students most at risk.” (Stanford Graduate School of Education, 2014)

            Throughout this research, we will
investigate the effects of classrooms having a one-to-one Google Chromebook
initiative in the fourth grade reading classrooms. Students in each of the
fourth grade classrooms will be provided with a Google Chromebook that they
will be able to access at school and home. This study is going to be used to
determine if the one-to-one accommodation of the Google Chromebook has a
positive impact on student engagement and achievement levels. Based on the impact
of student engagement and achievement, the research will also look to see if
there is an increase in fourth grade reading test scores.

Background
for the Study

            The advancement of technology has
increased significantly over the last decade. With that being said, technology
is now also playing a large role in classrooms throughout the United States.
Starting at a young age, children are being exposed to various types of
technology such as phones, tablets, computers, and televisions. With the
availability of having technology in the classroom, it is common to see
teachers implementing its usage in their instruction. By having computers,
laptops, iPads, SmartBoards, and projectors, teachers are able to find various
ways in implementing technology into their instruction. Fortunately, there are
many districts that have also been able to implement Google Chromebooks with a
one-to-one student initiative. When a district participates in this initiative,
they are allowing each student to have their own personal Chromebook to use
while at school. Over the last decade, the number of one-to-one laptop programs in the U.S. schools has
steadily increased. Zheng, B., Warschauer, M., & Farkas, G. (2013)
There are various programs
available to educators that could easily be utilized to enhance the engagement
and achievement of students. By having the availability of Chomebooks for the
use of all students, teachers will be able to implement these programs and help
ensure the learning objectives are being met by all students.

            With the availability of Google
Chromebooks, there has been an increase in the usage of Chromebooks as an
instructional tool in the classroom to help improve student learning. There is
substantial evidence that using technology as an instructional tool enhances
student learning and educational outcomes, according to (Gulek &
Demirtas, 2005).

            Laptop
use not only reinforces the utilization of successful learning strategies, but
also enables students to transfer the knowledge across disciplines. This is
believed to occur because laptop students are involved in: (1) highly engaged
and focused activities (spending more time on their work and completing larger
projects); (2) frequently applying active learning strategies; (3) interacting  with each other about their work; (4) problem
solving through project-based activities, which usually involve critical
thinking; and (5) regularly finding information, making sense of it, and
communicating it, according to Rockman et al (1997,1998, 2000). Research
provides evidence that students who engage in collaborative work, participating
in more project based learning, have higher levels of motivation (Wigfield et
al., 1998; Guthrie & Wigfield, 2000).

Purpose
of the Study

            The purpose of this research study
is to determine if the use of Google Chromebooks have an impact on student
achievement. The researcher will specifically evaluate the impact that the one
to one Google Chromebook initiative has on students Reading and Math scores.
The effects that the one to one Google Chromebook initiative has on the student
will be visible by seeing an increase in Reading and Math scores. This will be
able to observed in the classroom.

            One of the main teaching standards
in Kentucky fall under Kentucky Teaching Standard 6.3 which is, integrating the
use of technology into instruction. To reach mastery of this standard, the description
states that the teacher provides varied and authentic opportunities for all
students to use appropriate technology to help further their learning. Looking
into Kentucky Teaching Standard 6.2, it states that the teacher should use available
technology to implement instruction that facilitates student learning. To show
mastery in standard 6.2, the description states that it designs and implements
research based, technology infused instructional strategies to support learning
of all students. By having the one to one Google Chromebook initiative, these
standards can be addressed.

            Throughout this research, both
qualitative and quantitative data with be used to determine the effect of the
one to one Google Chromebook initiative. Results of this study can be used by
teachers and administrators to help in the decision of whether the
implementation of the one to one Google Chromebooks impacts student
achievement.

 

Research
Question

What
impact does the one to ono Google Chromebook have on elementary leveled student
achievement?

Chapter
2: Literature Review

            Children are exposed to multiple forms of
technology starting at a young age. They are used to seeing televisions,
computers, tablets, and phones. It is not uncommon to walk into a classroom and
see technology being used in some form by the teachers or students to help with
instruction. The use of technology varies in the classroom based on where you
are.  There are multiple forms of
technology that can be found in the classroom. Some of those include: laptops,
iPads, SmartBoards, Projectors, Apple TV, and clickers. As technology continues
to become the norm in today’s society, there are more school districts who are
choosing to get involved in the one to one initiative of having each student
having their own personal laptop for educational and extra-curricular usage. Over
the last decade, the number of one-to-one laptop programs in U.S. schools has
steadily increased (Zheng, Warschauer, & Farkas, 2013).  According to Devlin, Feldhaus, and Bentrem
(2013), the use of technology has become more prevalent in schools and has been
shown to facilitate student learning objectives. 

            Computers
are now a commonality when going into a classroom. In recent years, the
availability of the computers has had a dramatic increase. From a computer for
every 125 students in 1983, to a computer for every 9 students in 1995; many
schools not have one computer for every two students (Glennan & Melmed,
1996).  The response of educators and practitioners
has been mixed on technology and student achievement, according to Wenglinsky
(1998). Some have been quite enthusiastic about technology, seeing it as the
tool most needed for facilitate more comprehensive educational reform. Others
see it as passing a fad, more a distraction from school reform that anything else.
Advocates of technology in the classroom states that most uses of technology
are beneficial, and that they can lead to improvements in most or all educational
outcomes for students. Computers have been used to provide students the
opportunity for drill and practice since the 1960s. This is known as the
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). Repeated evaluations suggest that CAI
students demonstrate higher levels of the academic achievements than their
counterparts who do not have CAI (Wenglinsky, 1998).

            With the increase of advances in
technology, there has been a lot of interest by educational practitioners in
using laptops as an instructional tool to help with improving student learning.
According to (Gulek & Demirtas, 2005), there is substantial evident that
using technology as an instructional tool enhances student learning and
educational outcomes. Key evaluation findings fall into two categories: student
outcomes and teacher outcomes. The evaluations conducted by Rockman et al.
(1997, 1998, 2000), stated many of these outcomes were observed when students
were provided with their own laptop through the Anytime Anywhere Learning Project.

Student
outcomes include:

·     
Laptop
students spend more time engaging in collaborative work than non-laptop
students

·     
Laptop
students participate in more project-based instruction

·     
Laptops
lead to more student writing and to writing of higher quality

·     
Laptops
increase access to information and improve research analysis skills

·     
Laptop
students become collaborators (interact with each other about their work)

·     
Laptop
students direct their own learning

·     
Laptop
students report greater reliance on active learning strategies

·     
Laptop
students readily engage in problem solving and critical thinking

·     
Laptop
students consistently show deeper and more flexible uses of technology

·     
Laptop
students spend more time doing homework on computers

Teacher
outcomes include:

·     
Teachers
who use laptops use a more constructivist approach to teaching

·     
Teachers
who use laptops feel more empowered in their classrooms

·     
Teachers
who use laptops spend less time lecturing

According to Rockman el al. (1997, 1998,
2000), laptop use not only reinforces the utilization of successful learning
strategies, but also enables students to transfer the knowledge across disciplines.
This is believed to occur because laptop students are involved in: (1) highly
engaged and focused activities (spending more time on their work and completing
larger projects); (2) frequently apply active learning strategies; (3) interact
with each other about their work; (4) problem solve through project-based
activities, which usually involve more critical thinking, and (5) regularly
find information, make send of it, and communicate it.  Research provides evidence that students who
engage in collaborative work, participating in more project-based learning, have
higher levels of motivation (Wigfield et al., 1998; Guthrie & Wigfield,
2000).

            When
looking at the teacher evaluation system, the level of student engagement is
evaluated in the classroom. Research shows when implementing technology into
the classroom, it can help to enhance students’ engagement and motivation. With
enhanced students engagement and motivation, student achievement is increasing in
schools. Schools that are enriched with technology tend to show more gains in
achievement and other education outcomes such as student motivation and teacher
morale (Wenglinsky, 1998). There are many educational softwares
that can be used to serve as technological motivators for students. Some of
those softwares include: Study Island, Moby Max, Accelerated Reader,
Accelerated Math, and IXL. With these programs, teachers can set attainable
goals and objectives for students to master. According to Klemz, Murphy, &
Young (2003), the use of instructional technologies has the potential to more
actively involve and motivate students, thereby enhancing students learning
outcomes.  

            John Schacter’s review indicated
that there are both positive and negative findings of computer based
instruction in the classroom. Schnacter’s review of James Kulik’s Meta-Analysis
Study found three positive and one negative finding. The positive findings
Kulik drew from his 1994 work was that on average, students who used
computer-based instruction scored at the 64th percentile on tests of
achievement compared to students in the control conditions without computers
who scored at the 50th percentile, students learn more in less time
when they receive computer based instruction, and students like their classes
more and develop more positive attitudes when their classes include
computer-based instruction. The negative finding of James Kulik’s Meta-Analysis
was that computers did not have positive effects in every area in which they
were studied. John Schnacter’s review of Sivin Kachala’s research found three
positive findings, and one inconclusive finding. The positive findings were
students in technology rich environments experienced positive effects on
achievement in all major subject areas, students in technology rich
environments showed increased achievement in preschool through higher education
for both regular and special needs children, and student’s attitudes toward
learning and their own self-concept improved consistently when computers were
used for instruction. The inconclusive finding was that the level of
effectiveness of educational technology influenced by the specific students population,
the software design, the educator’s role, and the level of student access to
the technology (Schnacter, 1999).

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