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Abstract:

There is no doubt that nutritionists all around the world
have been doing a research whether vegetarian and plant-based diets are healthy
or not which can reduce the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and other
cancers that can increase longevity. Vegetarian diets contains low fat,
especially saturated fat and higher dietary fibre. On the contrary, it includes
more whole grains, legumes, nuts and soy protein that can replace red meat and
help in preventing obesity and chronic health problems such as diabetes,
cardiovascular diseases. Despite the well-planned vegetarian diet, it should
pay attention to some other nutrients that are lack to ensure an andequate
intake. This article will review the evidence for the vegetarian diet and also
make a discussion of the strategies in nutritional needs of vegetarian-style
and plant-based eating pattern.

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Reserch paper:

            Whether or not taking a vegetarian
diet is good for people health is a controversial question, supporters may say
that being a vegetarian can help them avoiding some diseases. However, the
other people rejected this notion, believing that eating no meats can lead to
more diseases because of the shortage of nutrition. In this essay, both of
these sides will be compared.

            First
of all, a person can be refered to as a vegetarian or vegan when he or she eats
no meat or any animals product including milk, eggs, honey,… If they take
only vegetables over the year but they go meats one day, they failed and no
longer being vegetarian. There are many types of vegetarianism, classified as Buddish
vegetarianism, fruitarianism, jain vegetarianism, macrobiotic diets, lacto
vegetarianism, ovo vegetarianism, ovo-lacto vegetarianism, sattvic diet,
veganism and raw vegetarianism. Among them, fruitarianism permits only fruit,
nuts, seeds and other plant matter that can be gatther without harming the
plant, jain vegetarianism includes dairy but excludes eggs and honey, as well
as root vegetables. (1) Meanwhile lacto vegetarianism includes dairy products
but not eggs, ovo vegetarianism includes eggs but not dairy products. The most
well-known from the list is Buddish vegetarianism which is followed by almost
people especially the orders of Buddish. Different Buddish traditions have differing
teachings on diet, which may also vary for ordained monks and nuns compared to
others. Many interpret the percept “not to kill”  to require abstinence from meat, but not all.
The earliest records about vegetarianism found in ancient Indian and ancient
Greece in 7th BCE. In Asia, vegetarianism is strongly related to the
statements of non-killing animals and developed by religion group and
philosophers. Meanwhile in Greece, Egypts and other region taking vegetarian
diets with purification and ritals purpoes. Vegetarianism rose again in the
Renaissance in 19th and 20th century. During this period,
there are many well-known people who are the supporters of vegetarianism. Among
them, Leonardo Da Vinci used to say that “I have from an early age abjured the use of meat, and the
time will come when men such as I will look upon the murder of animals as they
now look upon the murder of men.” (2)  In Europe, “vegetarian” first used in 1839 and the appearance
of Society Vegeteran in the UK in 1847, followed by Germany, Holland and other
countries. Before that, people likely used kinds of words relating to eating
plants such as vegetable regimen, vegetable system of diet.

           

There are a lot of reasons for eating vegetarian diet depend on culture. For
the reason of not harming animals and fight for animals rights. Beside that,
health is a reason as well, some people even hate the taste of meats. There are
also some organisations taking vegetarian diet to protect the eco systems
because they believe factory farming may be harmful to the environments. In
addition, they also maintain that the decreased usage of meat can help the food
supply in the world. Some different reasons about the ethical are suggested for
choosing vegetarian diet. There are some arrguements about the ethicals of
eating animals. Many people who are not vegetarian and vegan but still denied
eating some kinds of animals such as cats, dogs, horses or rabbits because of
taboos in their cultures. The others support eating meat for the reasons of
science, nutrition and culture, including religion. It
is dificult to deny that being vegetarian has many disadvantages that many
vegetarians may not realize. They say that its immoral in killing and consuming
meat but the fact is animals also kill each other to feed themselves, why
vegetarian have to feel guilty when they do that. Even the animals that kill
the others could not survive. Not only animals but also plants, they also have
feeling. Of course plants have neither brain, nor a center nervous system,
which could be responsible for the sense of feeling, however the pain here
belongs to psyche because plants also have to respond to the injuries. Another
excuse for not following vegan diet is eating meat has been a world’s large
culture since many centuries ago. The primitive people ate meet to suffer their
hungers, or with any famine, having something to eat is already a happiness.
Vegetarian diets contains a low amount of nutrient, for example Vitamin B12,
which is only in animal-based foods, such as meat, fish, poultry or eggs. Also
the omega 3 fats is missed out in the vegan diet. Eventhough some opinions
affirm that meat eaters would have higher risk of cancer but in fact, being
vegetarian can cause colorectal cancer as well. According to the American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition of the aforementioned Oxford study, which
reveals:”Within the study, the incidence of all cancers combined was lower
among vegetarians than among meat eaters, but the incidence of colorectal
cancer was higher in vegetarians than in meat eaters.”. Some of vegetarians do
not consume cow’s milk when it contains lots of calcium. It brings out
osteroporosis when people consume a lot of protein without any calcium. But on
the contrary, high consumption can increase the risk of having ovarian cancer
due to the fatty acids that is contained in milk. Instead, vegan diet should
have soy milk to balance the calcium in human body.

 

            Nutritionally wise, being a
vegetarian can be seen as a big disadvantage due to the lack of protein,
minerals and vitamins like B12. For growth, that is vital and necessary.
Vitamin B12, which is essential for converting protein, fats and carbobydrates
into energy and is found in meet. According to diet experts, children who are
raised as vegetarian can not find large amounts of nutrients in their meals,
especially iron, copper, zinc, vitamin D or vitamin B12. Not only but also the
amino acid which contains in a vegan-plan cannot be provided as much as a
non-vegan, therefore vegetarian will not get enough nureient, this may cause
tiredness, moodiness. Secondly, vegetarian think that eating meat is unethical
or maybe a cruel, however it is actually not. Consuming meat has been a part of
human evolution for million years. Since, people could not think of other
excuse not to eat meat due to the hunger. Non-vegan have said that vegetarian
has mistakenly elevate the value of animals life over plant life. They venerate
animals life when plants also respond to electrochemical or deforestation so it
is also harmful whenever vegetarians kill and eat plants. Another opinion
againts is that processed vegetarian options such as tofu can cause lots of
greenhouse gas pollution, according to WWF’s report in 2010. Therefore, being
vegetarian could not contribute to the better environment.

            Despite of the disadvantage, there
must be tons of advantage reasons that vegetarians choose their own diet. First
of all, vegan diet can help people prevent cancers such as cardiovascular, low
blood pressure which is contained in meat and the saturated fat from meat. In
addition, vegetables, fruits and whole grain can provide fibre that is
necessary for human and avoid cholesterol, which is found in animal-based foods
that may harm the heart. Secondly, vegan diet can control the better weight, so
that it can decrease the proportion of overweight people. Obesity is caused by
the fat in meat which vegetables and fruits have none. Instead of fatty meat,
they can consume butter or cheese to balance the amounts of necessary fat in
blood. Another reason for vegetarian eating style is to protect the environment
due to the high meet consumption which is harmful for greenhouse gases.
Producing meat requires lots of water, specifically 15,500 litres per kilo and
going to be underestimate in 10 years later.  There are still some advantages in the way of being
vegan. A balanced vegetarian diet brings lower risks of having disease such as
cardiovascular disease, diabetes or obesity. According to the World Cancer
Reserch Fund, eating meat increase the risk of getting diabetes in woman. A
vegetarian diet is rich in grains, nuts and soy proteins so that it can help
diabetes people to improve glycemic control. Also, being vegan can live longer
derive from the risk of dealth from cancer and avian influenza and becoming
overweight. In spite of the number nutrient in meat, vegetable absorb a large
number of calcium. Meat has high renal acid which is then passed to unrine and
gone. In some countries, fruits and vegetables are cheaper than meat. Hence,
people can save a large amount of money from consuming food. It is not a big
problem to a well-to-do family but yes for the one who have poor circumstance.
Therefore they can reduce the spending as much as possible.

            To sum up, the records above shows
the history of vegetarianism, positive and negative impacts of this way of
eating. Both of these way has its own merits, however, the advantages of taking
vegetarian diet seem to outweight the disadvantages. Moreover, people can see
that in spite of some benefits about animals and health, it also has some
drawbacks in the amount of main nutrients which is very necessary for human
body. As a result, people should consider when decide to eat their diet and get
some advices from nutrientists.

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