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A total of 45 groundwater samples are
collected from both bore well and dug well of tamirabharani river basin and
analysed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The physicochemical
parameters are pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium,
potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate, carbonate, bicarbonate and
nitrate are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its sustainability
for drinking water in both post and pre monsoon season.

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One of the most vital component in the
world is water. Water is considered as a significant issues of several
organisms (Kisi and Ay 2014). According to UN water use has grown at more than
twice the rate of population increase in the last century. By 2025 an estimated
1.8 billion people will live in areas plagued by water shortage (“‘Mission Blue’
Launched by National Geographic With Water Aid India And Bollywood |
Justmeans” 2017).
In 1992 united nation conference on environment and development held at Rio de Janeiro
was first raised for the issues of water scarcity. In 2017 the member nation
and UN agencies focused on issue of water wastage with scarcity of drinking
water in many parts of the world (“World Water Day
2017?: Water Scarcity in India | My India” 2017). Groundwater is a most vital resources which forms
the core of ecological system. Groundwater has become the major sources of
water supply for drinking, household agriculture industrial, recreational and
other environmental activities etc. Determination of physical, chemical and
bacteriological quality of groundwater is important for assessing various
usages (Selvakumar,
Chandrasekar, and Kumar 2017).

In India many large cities like
Hyderabad, Chennai, Coimbatore, Vijayawada, Amaravati, Solapur, Shimla and
Kochi are moving towards acute water crisis. Climate change, early summer,
deficit rainfall, depleting water level, rising population and lack of water
management policy is making it difficult for urban local bodies to meet the
increasing demand of water. According to the World Bank report, at least 21
cities are moving towards zero groundwater level by 2020 (“Alarming 21 Indian
Cities Will Run Out Of Water By 2030 – BW Businessworld” 2017). As per the assessment of Dynamic groundwater
resources of India as on 31st march 2013, the total annual
replenishable groundwater resources have been estimated as 447 billion cubic
meter (BCM). In this 36 BCM is for natural discharge, the net annual
groundwater availability for entire country is 411 BCM. The stage of
groundwater development in the country is 62% (“Ministry of Water
Resources, Government of India” 2017).

Water pollution is a serious problem in
India as almost 70% of its surface water resources and a great number of its
groundwater reserves are already contaminated by biological, organic and
inorganic pollutants. The environmental concern related to groundwater quality
generally focuses on impact of pollution and quality degradation on human
health (Atiqur Rahman A
The principle governing the chemical characteristics of groundwater influence
of anthropogenic activities are well documented in many parts of India.
Management of limited resources is paramount in arid and semi-arid regions
experiences rapid urban development (Masoud et al. 2016).The southern part of India has a grim situation. In
2001 Tamil Nadu government it made compulsory for each household to have
rainwater harvesting infrastructure and the result reflected in improvement of
overall water quality within 5 years (“76 Million Don’t
Have Safe Drinking Water: India’s Looming Water Crisis | World Water Day
Special” 2017)
The Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) is monitoring the inland water
quality under two major programmes namely Global Environmental Monitoring
System (GEMS) from 1984 and Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources
(MINARS) from 1988 at 32 stations in major rivers i.e. Cauvery, Tamirabharani,
Palar and Vaigai in Tamil Nadu (“Tamil Nadu
Pollution Control Board” 2017).

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