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A Jawbreaking Science Experiment (that Fizzes!)Physical ScienceExperimental Investigation___________________________________________Signature of Sponsoring Teacher___________________________________________Signature of School Science Fair Coordinator TeacherLauren Pfetcher640 W. Scott St.Chicago, IL 606107th GradeTable of ContentsAcknowledgments Page 2Purpose and Hypothesis Page 3Review of Literature Page 4Materials and Procedure Page 5Results Page 7Conclusion, Reflection, Application Page 8Reference List Page 10Acknowledgments I’d like to thank my parents for supporting me throughout my project, my grandparents for helping me acquire the materials, and my sister for helping take some of the pictures.  I’d also like to thank the jawbreakers for their willingness to dissolve into liquid, and the tap water and LaCroix for complying.Purpose and Hypothesis The purpose of this experiment was to see if a jawbreaker would dissolve faster in carbonated water compared to regular water, and to study the effects of carbonation.  I predicted that the jawbreaker would dissolve faster in carbonated water because the carbonation bubbles would speed up the process.  This was proven correct.  There was an average of 19 minutes and 3 seconds difference when I tested my experiment.Review of Literature The main research point was jawbreakers and soda/carbonated water, specifically the effects of carbonation.  This paper will examine these main points thoroughly with a variety of credible sources. Sweets, like jawbreakers, were first made in Ancient Egypt, even though there was no sugar there.  Both written and pictorial records indicate this (Woodward, n. d.).The term jawbreaker actually dates back to the middle of the 19th century.  At first, it wasn’t even used to define a candy, instead, as a “hard to pronounce word (A Jawbreaking History, n. d.).”  Later, jawbreakers, or “gobstoppers” were named because of how hard they were to crack.  The taster could only suck on the jawbreaker.  However, these hard candies aren’t always a sweet treat.  When heated in a microwave, a jawbreaker will explode upon contact with liquid, such as saliva (Exploding Jawbreaker, 2014). The first drinkable man-made glass of carbonated water was made in 1716 by Dr. Joseph Priestley (Bellis, 2017).  Since then, 200 nations have grown a love for the drink, and the annual consumption has risen to over 34 billion gallons per year (Avizienis, n. d.).  In it’s simplest form, soda is a blend of three ingredients: carbonated water, a sweetener, and a flavor.  “Anything beyond that is an embellishment (Butler, 2014).”  When you release the pressure inside the bottle (by cracking the can), the bubbles rise to the surface to create the fizzy taste that everyone loves. The carbonation in soda is a very intriguing thing.  Scientists have discovered that drinking soda will make you feel hungrier, because of the carbon dioxide in the fizz (Maloney, 2017).  But what really is the buzz behind the buzz?  “The fizz that bubbles up when you crack open a can of soda is carbon dioxide gas (CO2). Soft drink manufacturers add this tingling froth by forcing carbon dioxide and water into your soda at high pressures—up to 1,200 pounds per square inch. The “fssst” you hear is millions of carbon dioxide molecules bursting out of their +sweet, watery prisons, where they have been held against their will (Bryner, 2013).”  Yet some studies show that carbonated water is bad for you.  The sweetener Aspartame has been linked to brain tumors and skin reactions, and drinking sodas with high levels of sugar can increase risk of diabetes (Allen, 2017).  Also, since the CO2 bubbles are added through high pressure, “…the result is water that contains weak carbonic acid (Maloney, 2017).”  However, researcher Edmond R. Hewlett, spokesperson for the American Dental Association (ADA) said that it is the flavoring, and not the carbonation, that increases the acidity.  Carbonated water (with no added sugar or citric acid) does not cause tooth decay at all.  In fact, there are a number of things that plain carbonation does not cause, including loss of calcium in bones, and irritable bowel syndrome (though it can cause bloating and gas if you have a sensitive stomach) (Stevens, 2017).”Materials and Procedure(Disclaimer: This experiment will take a long time, so be prepared!)MaterialsQuantityCarbonated Water¾ LitersWater¾ LitersJawbreakers6 (if flavored, all must be same)Stopwatch1Transparent cups (glass or plastic)1-6*Measuring Cup (must be able to measure liters)1Spoon/Knife1-6**Any number is fine as long as you clean out the cup in between each trialProcedure:Fill one cup with ¼ Liters of one of your liquidsGENTLY place one jawbreaker in the liquid and start stopwatchPut one spoon or knife into cup and apply some pressure to the top of the jawbreakerOnce jawbreaker can be broken by the spoon or knife, stop stopwatch and record the timeRepeat steps 1-4 two more times (make sure you always use a fresh or clean cup)Repeat steps 1-5 with your other liquid (if you used sparkling water first, use water now, and vice versa).  At the end you should have 3 trials for both liquids.Record what you noticed.-BONUS STEP- If the stopwatch you are using has a “Lap” or “Split” function (if you search “stopwatch” on Bing, there is a split function), use it to have two different liquids going on at onceResultsTable:LiquidTrial 1Trial 2Trial 3AverageWater60:4164:0262:0562:27Sparkling Water45:0041:5843:2243:24 I noticed that on average, there was a time difference of 19 mins and 3 secs between the carbonated water and the regular water.  This proves my hypothesis correct because the jawbreaker in the carbonated water dissolved much faster than the other one.Conclusion, Reflection, and ApplicationConclusionMy Science Fair project is about the effects of carbonation.  I wanted to find out if carbonation in water affects how fast a jawbreaker will dissolve.  I hypothesized that carbonation would speed up the dissolving process by a pretty large amount.  I tested this by putting a jawbreaker in a cup of each liquid and timed it to see how fast each one dissolved.  I noticed that the jawbreaker in the carbonated water dissolved much faster than the one in the tap water, and that the carbonation bubbles seemed to burrow into the surface of the jawbreaker.  My hypothesis was proven correct.  I know this because there was a 19:03 difference between the time the jawbreakers took to dissolve in carbonated water vs normal water.  I learned that carbonation does speed up the dissolving process of a jawbreaker.ReflectionDuring my experiment, I tried to make things as accurate as possible by using the same flavor of jawbreaker and LaCroix.  However, my test might have been unfair if I unknowingly applied uneven pressure to the jawbreakers, but I did my best not to.  Also, if there were additives in the La Croix that I used, that may have sped up or slowed down the dissolving process.  If I could go back and change anything, I definitely would’ve picked smaller jawbreakers.  I was sitting in that chair pushing down on those jawbreakers for way longer than I needed to be.  I also would’ve picked a different color because it was hard to see the jawbreakers in the cloudy red liquid.  Now that I’m finished with my experiment, I’m curious about these things.  What about soda instead of sparkling water?  Does sparkling water clean off pennies more efficiently that water?ApplicationThis experiment is useful in real life situations because if we would like to know how to soften hard candies like jawbreakers, this is the way to do it.  These results are important in the field of science because it can help candymakers actually develop an Everlasting Gobstopper (from Willy Wonka’s factory).  This experiment connects to our everyday lives because it shows how everyday objects can be used in fun and intuitive ways.  This experiment also can demonstrate how a jawbreaker dissolves inside someone’s mouth.Reference ListA Jawbreaking History. (n.d.). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.candyfavorites.com/a-jawbreaking-historyAllen, J. (2017, October 03). Are There Health Benefits of Soda and Carbonated Water? Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.livestrong.com/article/255248-health-benefits-of-soda-carbonated-water/Avizienis, A. (n.d.). Soft Drink. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Soft-Drink.htmlBellis, M. (2017, April 18). The Interesting History of Soft Drinks. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.thoughtco.com/introduction-to-pop-the-history-of-soft-drinks-1991778Bryner, M. (2013, February 13). Why Does Soda Fizz? Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.livescience.com/32492-why-does-soda-fizz.htmlButler, J. (2014). Making soda at home: mastering the craft of carbonation. Beverly, MA: Quarry Books.Exploding Jawbreaker. (2014, September 18). Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/mythbusters/mythbusters-database/exploding-jawbreaker/Maloney, A. (2017, July 17). Sparkling Water is Really Really not Good for You. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://nypost.com/2017/07/17/sparkling-water-is-really-really-not-good-for-you/Stevens, C. J. (2017, August 11). Is Carbonated Water Bad for You? Retrieved November 19, 2017, from https://www.healthline.com/health/food-nutrition/is-carbonated-water-bad-for-youWoodward, A. (n.d.). Jawbreaker. Retrieved November 19, 2017, from http://www.madehow.com/Volume-6/Jawbreaker.html

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