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A large number of adults or even people of a younger age such as in their teens have or will suffer from heartburn at some point in their lives. To lessen the pain and other symptoms of heartburn many people take antacids such as Tums, Mintox, and Alamag. One of the most common antacids are Tums, and they vary different amounts of calcium carbonate, the active ingredient, in their pills to create different strength antacids. This project focused on if a change of the amount of calcium carbonate would have an effect on the pH of stomach acid, and what the ideal amount of calcium carbonate would be in an antacid for the best effect on stomach acid pH. Acid reflux or heartburn is a very common issue for many adults, making it a significant issue to find out the ideal method of controlling it. 56% of the survey performed by Terry Bolin and others said that they had suffered from heartburn at some point in their lives. For the majority of the survey people classified their pain as mild, but some rated it as moderate or severe. Although most people suffer from only mild discomfort, this discomfort can be avoided using multiple ways. Over half of the respondents of the survey use antacids to help control their pain, but others also used prescription medications. There was also about twenty percent of the survey that took no medication for their symptoms. (Bolin, Korman, Hansky, Stanton, 2000). Heartburn is caused by acid reflux, which is when the acid in one’s stomach rises up into the esophagus and causes pain. There are ways to avoid causing or worsening this issue, such as avoiding certain foods, eating smaller meals, or eating slowly. Some people suffer from GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), or chronic heartburn. The consistent acid rising can cause tissue damage to the esophagus, or the tube that transports food from the mouth to the stomach. This chronic condition can be controlled by other things, but antacids are a major part of treatment even for this chronic condition, just like how they are used for the occasional heartburn (Rinzler & Walker, 2004).Acid reflux and heartburn might be brought on by many different things, but one thing that is definitely influential are foods and drinks that are consumed. Certain things such as coffee, alcohol, or a high-fat or high-carb diet can trigger acid reflux (Rosick, 2015). Although certain foods can cause acid reflux and heartburn, it can vary from person to person, and certain foods will trigger it for one person but not another. This makes it difficult to know what exactly is causing the acid reflux and it will always be an individual case for each person suffering from heartburn to find what triggers or relieves their symptoms.Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound used in certain antacids to help with heartburn, indigestion, and/or acid reflux. It also can be used as a calcium supplement and can assist with conditions such as osteoporosis and hypocalcemia. It is a basic compound, with the pH being around 8-9, which makes it a good antacid. The purpose of antacids is to neutralize the gastric acid in the esophagus and stomach to help it go down back into the stomach, where it will no longer cause pain, and calcium carbonate is very capable of doing this due to the basic pH. Calcium carbonate is a metal carbonate, which means that contact with any sort of acid, like gastric acid, will cause carbon dioxide to form (National Center for Biotechnology Information). Gastric acid, also known as stomach acid, is an extremely strong acid composed of mostly hydrochloric acid. It has a pH of about 1-2, so it is capable of disintegrating metal. It would also be capable of destroying the stomach, but a layer of mucus within the stomach prevents that (McAdams). Gastric acids purpose is to aid digestion and breakdown food in the stomach. It also helps destroy any sort of dangerous things that were consumed, like bacteria.  It helps to digest proteins by initiating pepsin, and also helps absorb vitamins. It is an extremely necessary composition to have in the human body. This experiment will help to examine the best way to treat heartburn. More calcium carbonate in a pill may just be a way of raising the price of the product, even if the higher amount does not make a large difference or a difference at all to the lowering of pH or the speed of the change in pH. Many people studying the different methods of controlling heartburn are concerned about the safety of taking the drugs to control symptoms. Stephen Evans is a pharmacoepidemiology professor at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He took part in studying one method of treating heartburn, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). This study discovered that PPIs leads to a much higher chance of developing stomach cancer. Another scientist taking part in the study of safety of PPIs also looked at H2 blockers and their effect on infants and children. Laura Malchodi led this study that discovered that prescribing these drugs actually increased the chance of a bone fracture in their childhood. Antacids like Tums, Rolaids, and Mylanta have very little risk of causing danger, so they are a good alternative to using these other ways of controlling heartburn.

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