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A current global issue that has greatly interested me is the Kashmir Conflict between India and Pakistan. Kashmir is a region in South Asia, and is located towards the north of Pakistan and India. Since 1947, the region has been governed by the British, during the age of British colonialism in the Indian subcontinent. Ever since 1947, when the partition of India and Pakistan occurred, Kashmir has been stuck in a territorial conflict. The conflict is between Pakistan, India, and China, with China having a more minor role than the other two countries.Throughout the years, Pakistan and India have both participated in violence and conflict to defend the region. Three wars have been fought in relation to this territorial dispute. The first one is called the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. This occurred right after Pakistan and India split, and it was caused when Maharaja Hari Singh chose to accede to India. This decision that he made developed into an internal revolt that took place in an area of Kashmir known as the Poonch region. Kashmir has a majority Muslim population and a rebellion was caused because there was a significant amount of people who didn’t want to join with India, a Hindu nation. This rebellion led to the deaths of thousands of people, and from all different ethnicities. As the Maharaja chose to join India by signing the “Instrument of Accession”, India offered military protection and send in troops to fight against the Pakistani military. This kick started the war between India and Pakistan (Kashmir 2010). The Maharaja intended this move to be temporary, he joined India thinking that after the war would be over the Kashmiri people would choose which country they wanted to be a part of, or if they would rather be an independent nation. The war continued for a year until 1948, and then the UN intervened.They called for an immediate ceasefire which required Pakistan to withdraw military presence from the Kashmir Valley. The UN also stated that an election should take place for the Kashmiri people to decide what they wanted to do. Although the UN made this intervention, they were not followed through. Pakistan didn’t withdraw its troops from the region, and no election took play. This led to more tension between the two nation. Pakistan wasn’t the only country that India fought with over this region. The Sino-India War of 1962 took place between China and India, and was another territorial dispute. China had a strong military force and was able to occupy an area of Kashmir. They named that area Aksai Chin, and put it under their administration. A border between Indian Kashmir and Chinese Kashmir is called the Line of Actual Control. Lastly, there was another war between India and Pakistan in 1965 and 1971, this was one again about whether Pakistan controlled Kashmir or India.India believes they should maintain control over Kashmir Valley because ever since India and Pakistan partitioned into two separate counties, India with a majority Hindu population and Pakistan with a majority Muslim population, Kashmir has been stuck in the middle. In 1947, Kashmir was given the option to accede to one of the two countries (Bremmer 2016). At that period of history, Kashmir’s leader was Maharaja Hari Singh. At first Singh decided to be an independent state, but after deliberation decided to merge with India. By doing this, he gave India authority to Kashmir, and it was decided that anything related to Kashmir would be the decided by the central government in New Delhi. As Kashmir was now a part of India, it benefited from the military protection that India would have to offer. This history, and the fact that when the decision regarding Kashmir’s status has first been brought up, Kashmir chose to become a part of India. This monumental decision made by the Kashmiri leader is what justifies India’s position on the situation. Another reason why India justified their position to control Kashmir was because Pakistan had not removed all their military forces as the UN intervention has required them to. This was the first step to a resolution and it never took place. A third justification for India’s stance on this issue is that India accuses Pakistan of propaganda against India, creating feelings of hatred between the Kashmir people and India. Also, India states that their regions of Kashmir are economically developed, and political recognition and human rights are more enforced there than in Pakistani controlled Kashmir. India’s dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir shows clear signs of power and legitimacy being used. There is also some cooperation demonstrated between the two nations as well. India and Pakistan both want Kashmir very badly which is why they continue to contest for the territory while neither of them steps down first, this shows the concept of power. There is obvious conflict between the two nations as well, which is why they continue to have a number of wars over Kashmir. India also claims legitimacy over Kashmir by justifying their fight for the territory. They claim that the government has the right to use their authority because the Maharaja chose to join Kashmir with India, giving India complete control of Kashmir. An example of cooperation between India and Pakistan is the Simla Agreement. This treaty reaffirmed the Line of Control between India and Pakistan and stated that both countries will agree to resolve their problems peacefully with mutual discussion that take place with the UN. Even though this treaty has taken place, there are still ongoing issues with the Kashmir territorial dispute that continue to last today.

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