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A Blockchain works on a distributed ledger technologies, which was massively introduced for the transfer and record keeping of Bitcoin. The imperative advantage of the technology is that it provides a trustable path to transfer an asset without the need of a third party which acts as a central authorization. In order to work efficiently, it requires a secure protocol to transfer assets, protection against assets being transferred twice, and a sacrosanct record of ownership that can be automatically updated.Blockchain works on three basic functionalities;1. Peer to Peer networking and distributed data storage (P2P Network); It provides all the participants in the system with multiple copies of a single ledger so that a shared history of all the transactions in the system is available to all the members of the network.2. CryptographyIt provides a secure way to initiate a transaction that helps verify ownership and availability of the asset to transfer in the form of hashes and digital signatures.INPUT OUTPUT OF SECURE HASH FUNCTIONService Provider 1 7D09E44H7791247AEBHG80T0TT174DService Provider 2 0000BF113HHJKI2220OOPTOPLJE45K03. Consensus Algorithm (Proof of Work)It provides a process for the validation of the transaction and only after that, the process can be added to the chain as single ledger i.e. the block.Network1. All the nodes are notified about the new transactions2. These transactions are collected into a block by each node3. Every unit tries to coin a difficult proof of work for their respective block4. When the Proof of Work is found, the block is published in the network for all the nodes5. It is only accepted if all the transactions are valid and then added to a chain of blocks.An advanced Disaster Management technique using Blockchain:The main components of the new proposed method are:1. Government2. Medical Suppliers3. Shelter Providers4. Food Providers5. Telecom Service Providers6. Residents7. Transportation ProvidersGovernment:The government should develop an application based on Blockchain, where all the residents can register by providing their basic information. This application should be a combination of financial institutions, telecom service providers, medical support providers, transportation, relief centers or shelters etc. With the help of this application, the government can analyze the conditions of the hazard affected citizens in real time and can provide help. With the help of this blockchain enabled application victims can request to locate a missing person. The application identifies the missing person if present in any of the registered shelters. The government analysis the data collected by the information stored in the application. This application is further connected to the database in the blockchain network which makes it next to impossible to tamper with the available information. The government can request for the GPS location of the missing people from the telecom network providers and then move forward with the rescue operations. As the information flow is direct to the government from the telecom service providers and the affected people the rescue time could decrease.Telecom Service Providers:The service providers can join the app and become the part of the blockchain network. The Blockchain developers add the new service provider by updating their contract of operation. The telecom service providers are one of the most important pillars of the advanced disaster management technique as they verify the registered resident’s identity and enroll them as the part of the network. These registered service providers should provide the ability to share spectrum as the number of people using the network would be high during the crisis situation. The service providers should provide satellite phones and other sorts of wireless communication devices in case their phone stops working. These phones can be used to track their location and might turn out to be the important tool in the rescue operations. They can provide emergency wallet to all their registered users and with the help of blockchain can transfer a certain amount of fund to their wallet, which is a secure, safe and fastest way of doing the transaction.Shelter:The individual, group of individuals or an organization wants to provide their services by providing shelter to the affected people can register themselves on the application and provide proper information about the type of services they can provide, like the number of beds they have, amount of food, types of food and medicines available etc. The application can then match the shelter seeking people to the nearby shelter according to their need. The shelter can constantly update the vacancy information over the app so that more people have information about the availability of space. With the help of this application and the secure blockchain network the shelter can directly communicate with the government regarding necessary fund or with the other service providing organizations about their needs and as the communication is direct without the involvement of any third party the needs can be fulfilled faster and without any confusion. The shelter can also notify the government about any individual present at the place whose missing report has been filed.Medical Service Providers:The medical service providers can register themselves in the application for free and the blockchain developers can add them to the network. There is no need for a third party for communication. If residents want to communicate directly with the medical service provider, they can connect with them over the application without relying on the first responders. In that case, no misuse of the information of the patent can take place and the confidential information can remain confidential. The service providers can update the information about the available medicines and send medical practitioner to the requested area. The medical service providers can work closely with the telecom company to work on the basis of electronic priority.Transportation:The transportation organizations can register to the application for free and then can be added to the blockchain network. These service providers can offer information regarding the area and the location supported. They can also update the information regarding the type of transportation they can provide and publish data for the government on the application regarding all the people they have helped to move from the disaster site to a shelter. The shelter can contact these organizations directly through the blockchain network and request for the necessary transportation facility.Let’s consider a specific area under the effects of the hazard. Without the application, there would be no direct communication between the medical supplier, food supplier, water supplier, transportation etc. Which may result in uneven distribution of resources or allocation of resources without the actual need at the specific region? With the help of the application, all the providers can be in contact with each other and the residents who are looking for resources and can provide help accordingly. It will reduce the time of delivery, will reduce the wastage of resources and all members of the network will get what they need. On, the other hand all the information would be updated on the application and as it works on the blockchain principle, the government can directly analyze the situation and need of the residents and provide more funds and help in order to rescue people. All the data is stored in a blockchain enables database and no one can alter it. Now, this data and information can also be used to provide better relief and rescue services in future.Blockchain allows the organizations to facilitate a service and publish on the network using their existing ecosystem. All the transactions thus taking place are stored in the network. It provides an immutability feature by providing a secure network where a record once created can’t be tampered or deleted. Thus providing a trusted environment which supports both accountability and governance. As it works on a shared distributed ledger system, which ensures that the data and transaction reach respective parties as soon as they are created. Which leads to early settlements.It’s is hard to say that using blockchain in the disaster management and rescue operations techniques will completely “”stop”” the loss of life and property, but for sure it will help to reduce the intensity of the losses.

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