This section perfectly elaborates the findings section to provide a better approach to getting answers to the questions related to the role of women in Pakistan. This chapter has been divided into several parts and the former explains the motivational aspects of the empowerment that led women to step outside and have their own individual business lives. The second one discusses the facilities provided by the government to the women in order to have empowered hearts around the country. The last one explains the role-playing that this Mastung project did on changing the lives of women.
5.1 Productive growth and motivation
Among the entire women population in the district, about 82% of them had low education level. That meant many respondents didn’t go to college to have a graduation degree. It was quite hard for them to find any kind of work for becoming economically independent and have social freedom.
Moreover, it was equally difficult for them to have higher education in Mastung since there was less opportunity for achieving their prescribed goals. Other factors that might act as obstacles between them and higher studies can also be social pressure, family responsibilities, gender inequalities, lack of confidence and so on. No lectured motivation to women also seemed to be a cause of lower level of education in females who ultimately decided to be happy with their household work rather than following dreams. It was noted that the literacy rate in many rural areas had significantly been lower than that of urban. That means if the rural areas had a literacy rate of 50% then the urban will lead the field of study by earning 80% growth in education. The fact that men usually had higher chances of getting a higher education than the women also highlights the point of illiteracy in women. Presently, about 65% chances were there in rural areas for the proper growth and education of women where that of men had 80% and plus. And yet, women desired to pursue economic growth for the benefit of their self-confidence and their entire family.
Women who wanted to pursue this growth usually have a motivational factor of trying to get a better life for their family. The uniqueness that the researchers could see was the support they got from their families and friends. They didn’t expect this. The findings section elaborately explains how the majority of these women didn’t face any problem; rather they got all the help they needed from their family members. Among all, 18% respondents have had to face such situation in the initial stages of business roles. The factor that easily motivated then to perform their duties in spite of the reversals was the desire to give a better life to their families and children. They wanted their children to have better education and nutritional health so that they can get to face a future better then these women were living. The roots for this can belong to the fact that they themselves never had to face such a positive lives in their childhood; rather they were bereft of life’s necessities due to poverty. We children, these respondents had to be away from education, health, and nutrition. But they wanted to provide everything to their offsprings that they themselves couldn’t get. The observation that the women belonging to higher caste would be given more opportunities than the ones in lower casts is an eye-opening one. The women who possessed a higher graduated degree or similar educational level didn’t seem to be having lower cast. According to ABD report, middle and higher class women could find access to education better than the ones belonging to poor dimensions.
5.2 Various dimensions
With the help of CDP, women were able to get extra technical as well as marketing knowledge by using it in practical life. They were easily able to use their knowledge related to the field in their business lives to gain self-confidence and economic development of their respective families. Zaineb confirmed this (2009) by saying that the skills and development process that they were receiving from training classes played a vital role in achieving higher growth of their families and themselves. The research results state a certain positive impact that women started to see in their lives after having to perform business-related activities in their day-to-day lives. They had achieved a better level of living and could even save money for emergencies. Some women, who got micro-crediting facility from governmental firms, were able to get better financial returns from their business.
The usual narrow-minded and traditional thinking in the male dominant society is that the females should always be “stay at home” housewives rather than become the lead reason for regular earnings. This social pressure made them accept the rules of their family members and stayed at home. The present data, however, opposes this mentality and narrow-mindedness and shows that women were easily supported by their family members. Respondents didn’t have to face any difficulties regarding the admission process and in fact, male members of their families helped them at every cost. The primary reason for this behavior might be the influence of neighboring cities such as Quetta, Katal, Mach, Dhadar and so on. In some of these cities, men and women freely work together. Since the rural men would go there for earning a livelihood, they would perceive a different reality than that of traditional mindset they originally had. Seeing other females achieving great heights, they could feel that the women in their respective families should be able to get equal opportunities for proper growth and development. Another factor that can contribute to this phenomenon is that some of these men might even work with the seniors who could be females. They might have had realized the power and strength that females possess and thus, their pride and ego of being a “dominant male” could vanish into nothingness.
Women happily stated that the household activities did not come between the performance of their business related activities and their families helped them greatly. This had been an important factory for the growth of the women since if there was any disagreement on any of the sides the situation could have had been out of hands and the women could have had faced worst problems such as divorce or closed business. It has been long observed by Nestvogel and Klein (1992) that women’s social status is affected by society and domestic norms.
5.3 Economic growth
The results provide enough proof of the growing well-being of the women, especially living in the rural areas of Mastung. Their level of poverty has reduced and the income their family had previously earned was increased. One of these women also noted the realistic fact that since men are being unemployed in today’s fast pacing world, the possibility of becoming poorer would be increased. And thus, the burden goes on women’s shoulder and they are also desired to contribute to giving financial assistance to their husbands. Majority of women could feel happy by having to save enough money for their future and possible emergencies. It’s because of their hard work, one of them even managed to get employment in the one of the nearby city’s private firm.
Respondents have given easy access the firms that provided financial assistance and facilities like micro-credit and microfinance facilities to the respondents. The only problem they had to face was to have minimum marketing facility for their quality products and low wages for their hard work. The series of complaints didn’t stop just there. They also noted that as compared to males, the cost of sewing they received was half of what was expected. Even though the quality of work that women would provide was better than that of men, they would still get a low wage, status, and marketing support.
5.4 Making decision
The process of decision making makes it much easier for the growth of a particular business at to achieve great heights. It provides certain firmness to the efficiency for the business to grow to its utmost limits. When women are responsible for making certain household as well as business-related decisions, it can be seen as the empowerment of women that was the original goal of this research paper. It can also be used as a measurement tool for taking in the level and capacity empowerment that women have achieved. The decision making power shows the influential power that the women posses with respect to family members. But the research has done to make sure the outlined concepts and thoughts were true and surprisingly the results did show the divided concepts that were previously not known by many organizations around the district. Originally it was thought that the married women wouldn’t get the chance of being able to take any decision related to their business and family affairs. But the study and the results of it were proved completely wrong since it’s the opposite what was found to be true. The married women were found to have firmness and confidence in their decision-making power and they were even seen to handle their family affairs pretty well. On the other hand, the unmarried women were not able to take proper decision did to lack of mobility and dependence on parents for wellbeing. After the study, it was observed that about three fourth of the entire population of women in Mastung district were able to tasks full decisions and only one-fourth of them had partial access to their influential power towards the decision. Sajid and Khan (2011) also stated that the married women have a certain beneficiary factor and that is their decision-making process that they learn after getting married. They are practically forced to handle their own affairs rather than being dependent on their parents for everything.
Unmarried girls didn’t have much independence since their wellbeing was being taken care of by their parents or sometimes even their brothers took part in taking decisions instead of their parents. They ultimately had to follow the instructions and decisions made by their guardians. But in the present day, as informed by these respondents, the situation is changing drastically. The prevailing viewpoint of these girls and unmarried women were seen as the unique factor in the decision-making process. To some extent, unmarried were also given weight in decision-making capabilities by their brothers and parents. It was noted in a study (2002) that the women who were likely to go out alone had greater decision power on the household platform and could handle the affairs easily.
The unmarried respondents were questioned about this decision-making capacity and in reply, they told the interviewer that they had the capacity of taking the decision of their marriage freely. Their parents would ask and consult with them regarding the subject matter. Many of them were happy to declare that they were not forced to have arranged a marriage before the right age comes and they also were given enough independence of economy. As duly noted by ADP, the rate of the age of women getting married was surprisingly increased from 17.9 to 20.8 within 30 years of age span. Since the majority of the respondents were educated, they did not face any difficulty is making the decisions regarding business ventures.
Social economy and the aspect of education being provided to these women proved to be an asset for the process of decision making. It was firmly noted in 2009 that many of such women were able to take blood decisions related to their business while other 57% took decisions being combined their husbands. Among the rest of the candidates, about 15% of the remaining women let their husbands make all the decisions and other 3% women were dependent on male members of the family other than their husband.
As many as 6 women were able to use their credited amount given by financial firms. Above all, if they were educated and only 4 of them had been living happy married lives. Only 2 of these women were widowed. With respect to finance and economic growth, the age and marital status of women played a huge role in determining their decision making power and empowering influence they had to help them achieve independence.
5.5 Facilities from Government
Motivation factor had been as important as to make the decision for the growth of the economy in their day to day lives. If motivation could not be found elsewhere, self-motivation could be the only available option around for real. And it needs a medium, the dream, to come to the realistic platform and be used for the respondents. Aside from this, the good hope for this motivation that had women going along with their desires were the facilities provided by the governmental organizations. There have had been multiple organizations, such as Mastung development project, that have contributed much to the wellbeing of the entire poor residents. Other social workers expressed that when these governmental organizations target women they usually lack the framework of gender equality. They also acknowledged the power of skilled training and development programs as well as crediting system that can provide these women several powerful ways for development and growth. Among the two, the former helped them in achieving business goals and established a business franchise. This fact was proved when this research was actually done by the researchers. All the respondents were able to find solace in the training program provided by the Mastung development project. The interview section that was organized by this project also went well and it was noted that the respondents had great respect for the government facilities they were provided. They spoke about how these facilities gave them initial help and hope that aided to become the focused motivation that helped in achieving their goals. Other than that, they guaranteed that this approach can lead to health, economic as well as empowering aspect of reality.
5.6 The role of Mastung development project
The Mastung project had been working for the wellbeing of the rural areas and to initiate a skillful development for women. The dimensions provided by this project acted as a catalyst that gave hope and motivation to the respondents for becoming independent and breaks the shackles of old traditional ideas that limited their strengths. The women felt empowered by the admission of this project and learned multiple skills through which they can lead happy lives ahead. Before this project started, women had no say in family decisions and they were not free to go out of their houses. They weren’t aware of their technical skills and capabilities of making decisions that led their small-scale businesses to ultimate heights. Better training can be an asset to have a good and fruitful life ahead (Haq 2002).
It was not easy to have this project firmly established in such a strong traditional minded region. They faced oppression from many people, even communities. But it had been good fortune for the manager of the project that he had a master degree in the subject social working and he skillfully handled the situation. But later everyone started to appreciate their endeavor since many men were also aware of the city life. They covered multiple ranges of subjects for improvement of the economy and empowerment of women such as child education, computer learning, business skills, arts, production, industrial working and many more. With many more ideas, they aim to have a better future ahead and if this project continues to thrive in that area, the development of women and economy is sure to occur.
It started with the idea of initiating a Mastung development project in the district and later it achieved great success. The management was found to be appreciable and there was the improved standard of living provided to the rural respondents that facilitated their growth. It granted them motivation to have a business, even if small-scale, for becoming as independent as women in urban areas. It created positive vibes around the public mostly because of the happiness of women and the motivational lectures that they were providing. This had proved to be an asset to improve the condition of women and their families in rural areas. If such projects were to initiate in every other rural area, they would surely taste the heights of growth and development.
Women were able to learn the power of making a decision and their confidence increased. The activities of child labor became significantly less as compared to the pre-project days. The better child-care, public health, nutritional needs, growing economy was seen after the project commenced. Other than that, they took many steps to remove the gender inequality from the minds of the public around the district. It successfully broke the barriers of traditional rules and regulations freeing women to earn their own livelihood. The financial assistance helped them achieve a great deal and this research project could see that these women have become much more confident and independent.
There are several factors that can be improved to provide better services to the people around the district such as improving their budget. There should be an arrangement of weekly programs and seminars for the benefit of both the genders on the topic of equality. Courses regarding various skills and industrial training should be initiated for the women to take another leap to achieve success. Presently, only females have been targeted for the improvement of economy and development of the country but in the near future, steps should be taken to have programs and targeting options for males either. Classes such as management of business should also take place for the post-business mode of the business entrepreneurs. There should be enough knowledge or training programs given to the families living there about the facilities of the loan and other financial services initiated by the government so that they can get the successful benefit of it. There should be internship programs arranged for students to have the benefit of becoming works person. The center should also take care of opportunities available to the public in the district. There should be pre-arranged classes and training programs for career counseling purposes so that lost public can be benefitted.