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is used for writing webpages. It’s a scripting language.HTML stands
for Hypertexts Markup Language.

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Hypertext is
a text that works as a link.
Markup Language is
a way of writing your layout information in documents or pages.

An HTML document is a
plain text file that contains text in structured form with an extension .htm or
.html. When any browser opens an HTML file, Browser looks for HTML codes in the
text files and uses them to change layouts, insert images, or create links to
navigate to other pages.
Hence HTML tags can be written in any simple text editor.
We can create our pages using some popular HTML editors, such as notepad, notepad++,
sublime editor, FrontPage or Dreamweaver.

:Contents to Written here



Opens and closes an
HTML document

to provide information about the
document for use primarily by search engines & browsers

<br /> The title of the document

All the content of the pages

// for Hyperlink

    Ordered list

the main content of the web pages

2. Cascading
Style Sheets (CSS)

Style Sheets (CSS) is the W3C standard for defining the presentation or
abstraction of documents written in HTML or in 
any XML language. Presentation, refers to the display of document that
is displayed to the user, whether on a computer screen, laptop, a cell phone
display, printed on paper, or read by a screen reader in any device. CSS is a
separate language with its own syntax.

of Syntax:

·       Every
statement must include a selector and a declaration. First the selector and
then declaration.

·       The
declaration properties are separated by semicolons.

·       Each
property name followed by a colon and then the value for that property. There
are many different types of values in properties, but any given property can
only take certain specific values as set down in the specification.

·       Sometimes
a property can take a number of values, as in the font-family. The values in
the list should be separated by a comma and a space.

·       As
with HTML, white space can be used to make your style sheet easier to read and

of CSS:

·       Better
downloading speed

·       Makes
better pages accessibility.

·       Less
time for maintaining and modifying the site.

·       Multiple
styles will cascade into one.


3. PHP

is server side scripting system programming language – PHP stands for “PHP:
Hypertext Preprocessor” – Syntax based on Perl, Java, and C. Very good language
for creating dynamic content and Powerful. If you want to focus on system with
dynamic content, this is a one of best to opt.

Zend Framework

PHP’s Web Framework is a
collection of classes which helps developer to develop a web application. Zend
is most popular PHP framework. It is an open-source MVC framework for
modern web applications. Zend Framework has some loosely coupled components,
that’s why it is referred as “Component Library”. Zend Framework provides any
PHP stack and Zend server to run Zend framework applications.

Zend Studio is an IDE
that includes features to integrate with Zend Framework. It provides MVC view
and code generation. The current Zend framework 3.0 includes new components
such as JSON RPC server, a XML to JSON converter, PSR-7 functionality, and
compatibility with PHP 7.

Zend Framework 2 is an
open source framework for developing web applications and services using PHP
5.3+. Zend Framework 2 uses 100% object oriented code and utilizes most of the
new features of PHP 5.3, namely Namespaces, Lambda Functions and Closures.

Zend Framework 2 evolved
from Zend Framework 1, a successful PHP framework with over 15 million
downloads. Zend Server has a free community version and a commercial version.

Zend Framework Features

Some of the salient
features of Zend Framework is as follows ?

object oriented web application framework
MVC implementation
multiple databases including PostgreSQL, SQLite etc.,
cloud API
URI Routing
provides RESTful API development support.
reusable and easier to maintain.

Why  we use Zend Framework?

What makes the Zend
Framework one of the premier frameworks used by PHP developers is that – it
provides clean and stable code complete with intellectual property rights? It
also makes programming easier. It is fast, easy to learn and convenient
framework. Zend supports strong cryptography tools and password hashing











4. JavaScript

is a widely used web-based programming language that powers the dynamic
behavior on most websites, including this one. In this lesson, you will learn
about data types and built-in methods, essential knowledge for all aspiring
JavaScript developers. When you finish, you’ll know how to write programs that
solve mathematical expressions, compute the length of a word, and generate
random numbers.This lesson covers the building blocks of JavaScript. Make sure
to take notes and pace yourself. This foundation will set you up for
understanding more complex concepts later.

Syntax Overview:

External Scripts:

Script can also be loaded from an external file as

Javascript variables:

JavaScript Operators and Constructs:

Operators and constructs are similar to C.

User Interaction:

There are three built in methods of doing user
interaction in JavaScript:

·       alert

·       confirm

·       prompt


JavaScript Events:

These are some common events used in javascript-

·       onload
and onunload : When a page is first visit or left

·       onfocus,onblur,onchange:
events pertaining to form elements

·       onsubmit:
when a form is submitted

·       onmouseover,
onmouseout: menu effects


DOM Document Object Model :

DOM gives us a way to access and manipulate the contents of a document. We
commonly use it for HTML, but the DOM can be used with any XML language as
well. And although we’re focusing on its relationship with JavaScript, it is
worth noting that the DOM can be accessed by other languages too, such as PHP,
Ruby, Python, C++, Java, Perl, and more. Although DOM Level 1 was released by
the W3C in 1998, it was nearly five years later that DOM scripting began to
gain steam.

DOM Element Contents

·       element.innerHTML
: This property represents the HTML within the element

·       element.textContent:
The plain text within the element







Document<br /> title




Paragraph text with a link here.

More text here.





JavaScript Objects:

The following are the objects we use –

·       Number

Represent s date, integer, floating point
numbers,  Browser automatically converts
number litrals to instances of the number.

Var val= new Numner(number);

·       Boolean
Object :

Always holds the resultant value TRUE/FALSE

Var val=new Boolean(value);

·       String

Let’s you work with a series of characters,it wraps
Javascripts string primitive data type with a number of methods.

Var val= new String(string);

·       Array

Var fruits= new Array(“apple”, “pineapple”,”guava”,

·       Date

New Date();





or JavaScript Object Notation is a lightweight text-based open standard
designed for human-readable data interchange. The JSON format was originally
specified by Douglas Crock ford, and is described in RFC 4627. The official
Internet media type for JSON is application/json. The JSON filename extension
is .json. This tutorial will help you understand JSON and its use within
various programming languages such as PHP, PERL, Python, Ruby, Java, etc.













5.    AJAX
(Asynchronous JavaScript and XML):

is a new technique for creating better, faster and more interactive web
applications with the helpof XML,HTML, CSS and JavaScript. AJAX uses XHTML for
content, CSS for presentation, along with DOM and JavaScript for dynamic
content to display.

          Conventional Web applications transmit
information to and from the server using synchronous requests. It means you
fail out a form, hit submit and get directed to a new page with information
from the server. With AJAX, when you hit submit,  JavaScript will make a request to the server,
interpret the results and update the current screen. In the purest sense, the
user would never know that anything was even submitted to the server.

Benefits of Using AJAX:

·       Making
things fast

·       Look
more user friendly

·       Reducing
the load on server

jQuery :

is a fast,small and feature rich JavaScript library. It makes things like HTML
document traversal and manipulation, event handling, animation and AJAX much
simpler with an easy to use API that works across a multitude of browsers.

Why we use jQuery?

are lots of other JavaScript frameworks out there but jQuery seems to be most
popular and also the most extensible. Many of the IT giant on the web use
jQuery like Google, Microsoft, IBM and Netflix.

6.    XML

is a markup language similar to HTML. It stands for Extensible Markup Language
and is a W3C recommended specification as a general purpose markup language.
This means, unlike other markup languages, XML is not predefined so you must
define your own tags. The primary purpose of the language is the sharing of
data across different systems, such as the Internet.

allows you to create your own self descriptive tags, or language that suits
your application. XML carries the data and does not present it. It is a public

Use of XML

We use it because it offers many advantages to us

·       Simplicity

·       Extensibility

·       Interoperability

·       Openness

·       A
core of experienced professionals


A common type of
client/server session is a Web or HTTP session. An HTTP session is initiated by a Web browser
each time you visit a website. While each page visit
constitutes an individual session, the term is often used to describe the
entire time you spend on the website. For example, when you purchase an item on
an ecommerce site, the entire
process may be described as a session, even though you navigated through
several different pages.



stands for Cross-Platform (X), Apache (A), MySQL (M), PHP (P) and Perl (P). It
is a simple, lightweight Apache distribution that makes it extremely easy for
developers to create a local web server for testing purposes. Everything you
need to set up a web server – server application (Apache), database (MySQL),
and scripting language (PHP) – is included in a simple extractable file. XAMPP
is also cross-platform, which means it works equally well on Linux, Mac and
Windows. Since most actual web server deployments use the same components as
XAMPP, it makes transitioning from a local test server to a live server is
extremely easy as well.

8. Eclipse IDE

Eclipse is an integrated development
environment (IDE) used in computer
programming, and is the most widely used Java IDE. It
contains a base workspace and an extensible plug-in system for customizing the environment. Eclipse is
written mostly in Java and its
primary use is for developing Java applications, but it may also be used to
develop applications in other programming languages via plug-ins, including Ada, ABAP, C, C++, C#, COBOL, D, Fortran, Haskell, JavaScript.
NATURAL, Perl, PHP, Prolog, Python, R, Ruby (including Ruby on Rails framework), Rust, Scala, Clojure, Groovy, Scheme, and Erlang. It
can also be used to develop documents with LaTeX (via a TeXlipse plug-in) and packages for the
software Mathematica.



9. Web 2.0

2.0, a phrase is a cluster term for the new phase of World Wide Web, which was
coined by O?Reilly and Media live International in 2003 and popularized by the
first Web 2.0 conference in 2004.

2.0 Specification

emerging of Web 2.0, it is being vastly used because of its wide range of
variety and very attractive features. Descriptive list of Web 2.0 tools are
endless even though we can say that the new generation of Internet
approximately uses its tools.

2.0 Innovations

the rich internet application technique has prompted the development of
web-sites that copy personal computer applications like (M.S. Office package)
word processing, the spreadsheet, and slide-show presentation while some wiki
sites replicate many features of PC authoring applications.

of Web 2.0

the origin of Web 2.0, Web 1.0 was known as a Web? that was like warehouse of
information and static content. Then, as time passes, with the advancement of
technology and software, a huge amount of data and content became dynamic and
returning custom results to users.

Design of Web 2.0

the Internet world is changing very swiftly, now the users look for more than a
web site instead of simple text and picture based website. They want to be more
interactive to the world by sharing their views; they want to show their
talents in terms of their new creation to the global world. For fulfilling
these necessities, a new concept was born that have all-in-one technology in
itself and it is called Web 2.0.

of simple Web 2.0 Website

making any Web 2.0 site, the programmers must keep in mind the following
things, which suits the Web 2.0 technology and the site runs smoothly on the



















MySQL is a Relational DataBase Management
System (RDBMS).

RDBMS means R–DB–MS.

DB stands for
Database, a repository for the information store.

The data in a database is organized into tables, and each table is
organized into rows and columns.

Each row in a table is called a record. A record may contains
several pieces (called fields) of information, and each column in a table is
known as a field.

·       MS stands for Management System, the
software that allows you to insert, retrieve, modify, or delete records.

·       R stands for Relational, indicates a
particular kind of DBMS that is good at relating information stored in one
table to information stored in another table by looking for elements common to
each of them.

MySQL operates using client/server
architecture in which the server runs on the machine containing the databases
and clients connect to the server over a network. The server operating systems
is usually a Linux (like Redhat 9.0 etc.) or Windows 2000 operating system.
Typically mySQL is supported on Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Red Hat Fedora
Linux, and Debian Linux, and others. As with any other client/server application,
MySQL is a multi-user database system, meaning several users can access the
database simultaneously. program may contact the server programmatically
(meaning a program call the server during execution) or manually. For example,
when you are issuing commands over a telnet session to a MySQL server, you are
issuing the requests to the server by typing commands at your command prompt
manually. On the other hand, if you have input some data (say your credit card
information on the Internet towards purchase of some goods) in a form, and the
form is processed by using a server side program, then the MySQL server is
contacted programmatically. This is often the case in credit card approvals,
member subscriptions etc.

Some Features of

·       Speed

·       Ease of use

·       Less Costly

·       Query Language

·       Better Capability

·       Connectivity and

·       Portability

Eg. A SQL server: This is an engine which
provides access to your databases.Client programs for accessing the server: A
program allows you to enter queries directly and view results.

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