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1.Introduction

Nowadays , the life is modern and developing, unhealthy food
is sold universally such as fast food,Sausage ,energy dinks ,etc …   so that makes people have more and more
problems about health. One of those is obesity which gets becoming popular in
many countries specially developed countries. Obesity is related to numerous diseases such as heart
disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, cholesterol and other diseases.
Moreover, overweight people have difficulties in studying and participating in
social activities . excessive fat accumulation that may impair health.  According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2016, about 1.9
billion people in the age 18 and over are overweight, included 38% of men and
roughly 40% of women. Overall,
the proportion of  obese adult in all
over the world was about 13% in 2016 (WHO 2017). James Chapman’s survey carried out that currently,
more than 400000 people die each year in Europe associated with obesity
(Chapman 2014). From the figures it is apparent that obesity results in
a negative impact on health. This research paper, with the purpose to help reduce obesity proportion
will discuss the causes of esiesity and figure out the solutions to this
serious issue.

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2.1 Definition and Background

 Overweight and
obesity are defined by the WHO as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that
presents a risk to an individuals health. Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of
weight proportionate to height to classify overweight and obesity in adults.It
is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of his
height in meters (kg/m2) ; a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight, while
anything over 30 is obese according
to the World Health Organization . Overweight will lead to myriad
disease such as diabetes,
heart disease, high
blood pressure, cancer (
women:  breast cancer,
colon, gallbladder, and uterus; men:  colon cancer and prostate
cancers)…() There are some facts about obesity. In the United
States America , the figure of adults who are obese or overweight witnessed
more than approximately 66.67 percent in 2017. Obesity which causes more than
2.8 million people passed away each year is one of top five resulting in the
death in the whole world (Kimberly Holland, 2017). 

  

  2.2. Causes of obesity

  2.2.1. Having unbalanced diets 

      One of the main
reasons leading to excessive weight is unbalanced diets, that meaning the meals have low nutritional
value. In recent years, life is faster and people tend to be busier;
hence, they eat far more fast food  than
in the past, which means that they may increase their total calories consumed.
Nowadays, children do not like eating vegetables and fruits or drinking fresh
juices, neither do adults. They eat fast food and drink more soft drinks
because of its convenience –
typically needing little or no preparation, which they can buy easily
everywhere with a cheap price and totally enjoy meal at the same time during
working or studying. 

The unbalanced meals always provide people more calories
than usual. In fact, the average physically active man needs only about 2,500
calories a whole day to maintain a healthy weight, and the average physically
active woman needs about 2,000 calories for one day. For example, according to
a journalist of CNN named Caleb Hellerman, approximately 25% of American get
200 or more calories from energy drinks such as coke, soda and juice.
Surprisingly, a 567-gram soda includes 227 calories, more than 10% of total
calories a woman needs one day (Hellerman 2013).

      2.2.2. Doing
less physical activities

     One study of BBC
News by Adam Brimelow pointed out that although there are no signs of
activeness impacts on weight, children with excessive weight did less exercise
than peers (Brimelow 2010). In 2010, WHO reported that approximately 23% of
people aged 18 and over were inadequate exercise (WHO 2010).

Many
people are not very physically active. The reason makes people to be
inactive is the advancement of technology and the lack of parks, insufficient
sport facilities or air pollution for people to relax and do more outdoor
activities after working and studying. Beside that, the development of
television sets, not only children but also mature people like watching
television to relax and broaden mind; consequently, they spend less time
playing sports and going outside. In the same way, computers are becoming
helpful devices that personnel can complete their works with the only
requirement is sitting in front of the screens.

People
who are inactive are more likely to gain weight because they do not burn the
calories that they take in from food and drinks.

Thus, the rate of inactive people may increases and brings
about the growth of obesity.

  2.1.3. Other reason

There are several reasons causing obesity such as lack of sleep
. People nowadays are engaged in their work and disrespect their sleeps.
Normally, they think that shortage of sleep has no influence on their weight.
But Jason Koebler – an author of USNews emphasized that sleep loss leads people
to expend more energy because they need more to keep their bodies awake.
(Koebler 2013 – cited Kenneth Wright). For example, one study of teenagers showed that with each
hour of sleep lost, the odds of becoming obese went up. So lack of sleep
increases the risk of obesity in other age groups as well.

People
who sleep fewer hours also seem to prefer eating foods that are higher in
calories and carbohydrates, which can lead to overeating, weight gain, and
obesity  

 2.3. Solutions of
obesity       

      2.3.1. Having
balanced diets

There are myriad solutions to solve obesity but one of the
main causes of obesity overeating. Hence, the first solution given here is
having a healthy diet. As the figures mentioned in 2.1.1, the amount of
calories absorbed human need in a day is different; in particularly, the amount
of calories that men consume each day is approximately 1800 calories, whereas
women need atleast 1200 calories (Morris 2015). Having a healthy diet not only
helps control weight but also helps people fight this disease.  A substantial meal consists of lean protein,
fruits, vegetables, whole grains helps keep your immune system and digestive
system running (Truex 2015). Leslie Truex said eating a balanced diet nutrition
helps the body function at optimum levels. Snacks provide a lot of energy but
often have a lot of fat. Sugar and refined carbohydrates can lead to tired
stagnation (Leslie Truex 2015). However, a reasonable diet should come with durability.
If people do not desert their habit to set new eating habits they will return
to their old  and the weight will come
back. In the same way, to improve overweight, having a reasonable diet and
limited snacks along with perseverance is essential.

2.3.2.Doing more physical activities

Having a good diet is inadequate to decline overweight. To
achieve high implementation a diet rationality combined with useful activities.
Betty Holt has written an article in implementing physical activity is often used
as walking, jogging, cycling and swimming (100 calories burned equivalent to
about 10gram of fat to walk 20 minutes, 12 minutes of swimming or tennis, 8
minutes cycling or jogging) (Betty Holt 2014). Be seen from there, but only
with simple operation but consumes a large amount energy of the body. In
addition, exercise releases several chemicals into the brain that help reduce
stress, anxiety and depression. Further exercise increases your feelings of
confidence, and improves mood and thought processes (Otto 2011). In a study in
the well-being index, bill hendrick said no exercise in a week was associated
with 35% rate of obesity. Exercise 30 minutes, 1-2 days a week, was associated
with a 28% rate of obesity (Hendrick 2009) from the data given above can be
seen as an exercise solution important limitations as well as the treatment of
obesity.

On the other hands, in recent year, for burning calories
people can do some simple exercises at home based on video guide online in 5-30
minutes depend on each unit. This trend is more and more popular because its
provides the same effective as training in the gym for an hour.

Other solutions

Sleep
helps maintain a healthy balance of the hormones that make you feel hungry
(ghrelin) or full (leptin). When people do not get enough sleep, the level of
ghrelin goes up and the level of leptin goes down. This makes people feel
hungrier than when they well-rested. So that, a healthy timetable is important,
not only balance diet but also time for sleep. In fact, people need to sleep at
least 7 hours per day to have a full energy for working or studying whole day.

Sleeping
is a vital part of the foundation for good health, well-being throughout your
lifetime, and also helps to prevent many diseases, including diseases related
to obesity.

3. Conclusion

The above analysis has shown that being obese is an considerable
issue that we should care more. It has developed rapidly in recent years and
affected a lot on people, who live negatively. Some obese people blamed their
weight problems for genetics, but that is not always the case. There are
several subjective reasons bring about excessive weight such as diets, physical
activities. Therefore, obesity is a preventable disease. If you are at risk or
overweight, you should adjust your eating habits ( e.g : adding your meal
healthy food but including fewer calories) or increase physical activities
daily. To have attractive body and better health, let’s do it right now.

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