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1.      Equity

In industrial sectors, usage of complementary medicine often associated with higher income and higher education (Eisenberg, D. M et al 1990). Yet for ethnic minorities in those same societies, traditional medicine may at times be the first-line treatment for the poor and those who do not speak the language of the dominant society. Inadequate and expensive conventional medical services are factors in such reliance on traditional medicine. “Complementary” medicine in these situations is not complementary, since basic conventional medical care may not be accessible to these people; thus there is a danger of facilitating a “separate but unequal care system.”(Eisenberg, D. M et al 1990). In industrialized countries, members of the dominant culture who have lower incomes and educational levels tend not to use complementary medicine. This may be because they have less disposable income and less exposure to information about complementary therapies. The availability of broader choices in health care services in these countries is increasingly concentrated among the educated and well-to-do. Equity issues concern. In developing countries, and in ethnic enclaves in industrialized countries, the affordability, availability, and cultural familiarity of traditional (Bodeker and Kronenberg, 2002).

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Health care that is not affordable and out of pocket health care expenditure is major reason for poverty in India. The poor segment of the society have to face harsh reality of death and disability. Poverty as a major underlying cause of malnutrition, infection, and diseases. As per Planning Commission, GOI 21.98% (2013) of the population belong to below the poverty line (BPL) category. Every year approximately, 150 million people face severe financial crunch, and 100 million are pushed towards BPL because of acute sickness involving cancer, heard diseases usage of health services leading to pay out of pocket. Many have to sell properties or go into debt to meet the health care demands. Available, accessible, acceptable, accountable because of highly WHO has defined health as “State of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Any mechanism, man, method, system which helps in achieving this health status becomes the part of health system (http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/health.html)

Every human being has the right to enjoy “the highest attainable standard of health,” the effective functioning of any health system requires an efficient public health service which can be fulfilled by giving every man an affordable and highly updated equitable health system. In previous years, there is a major changes healthcare system which has worsen the situation in India. Most important gaps in the health care include an understanding of the complication of the disease and what leads to and causes ill health, the accessibility and use of applicable technology in the management of disease, ill condition and health systems that have an impact on service delivery. Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has the potential to increase economic growth, improve educational opportunities, reduce impoverishment and inequalities, and foster social cohesion. Several steps are taken for achieving UHC will address the public health challenges and vice versa. Demographic transition Public health is “the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals.” It is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis. The population in question can be as small as a handful of people, or as large as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in the case of a pandemic). The effective functioning of any health system requires an efficient public health service. Such a service is essentially multi-disciplinary in nature, and the workforce has prime responsibility for delivering non-personal, population-based health care within or at times outside the traditional health sector.

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