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1.1

The training of pilots on the flight simulator is one of
the most important elements for ensuring the safe operation of the aircraft. It
allows minimizing the negative impact of the so-called human factor, that allows
to minimize the possibility of false actions of the crew of the aircraft. The urgency
of the training has a steady tendency to increase due to the fact that the human
factor continues to be the main cause of aviation events. The table below was complied
from the PlaneCrashInfo.com database, representing 1,104 accidents from 1/1/1960
to 12/31/2015, for which a definitive cause was known. The accident planes include
those with 10 or more passengers and one or more fatalities. Military and private
aircraft and helicopters were excluded. Where there were multiple causes, the most
prominent cause was used. The category of pilot error includes those accidents in
which weather or a mechanical fault was a strong contributing factor to the pilot
error.

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Table 1.1

ACCIDENTS BY CAUSE (percentage)

Cause

1960s

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

All

Pilot Error

60%

55%

54%

60%

60%

58%

Mechanical

21%

16%

18%

15%

18%

17%

Weather

6%

5%

6%

6%

7%

6%

Sabotage

5%

11%

11%

8%

9%

9%

Other

8%

13%

11%

11%

6%

10%

 

In addition, the rapid growth of computing power of the
computer allowed to bring modern aviation simulators to such a level of development
that the training of pilots on simulators has become more effective than preparation
on a real aircraft. Such an effectiveness of aviation simulators is due to their
capabilities to ensure high intensity of training. So, if in real flight, the crew
is forced to devote considerable time to performing routine operations that are
not related to specific tasks of training, for example, performing long flights,
climbing, flying into a zone, etc., then the special software allows the simulator
instantly change flight conditions, weather, geographic location, stop the task
for parsing and repeating, etc.

Also, on the simulator, it is possible without any limitations
to carry out working out of actions in emergency situations, some of which are either
dangerous for working out in real flight, or even their working out in real flight
is prohibited. In addition, the preparation of pilots on AO is economically viable
(despite the high cost of modern simulators approaching the cost of the aircraft
itself).

 

1.2

Flight Simulator (FS) is a technical tool that is widely used to enhance the
skill of aircraft operators, re-training crew members, regular inspections of crew’s
professional knowledge, and working out the interactions of the aircraft crew during
piloting, both in normal and in difficult weather conditions. The use of fs makes it possible to fundamentally change
the training system of pilots and other aviation specialists.

Airbus flight simulator

Typically, for
each type of aircraft, a separate simulator is created, which is associated with
the peculiarities of flying various types of aircraft. Since airplanes are currently
used in air travel, designed several decades ago, there is also a demand for the
use of simulators for them. But because of the great moral and physical wear of
the old FS, it is virtually impossible to use them, and therefore the task of restoring
their workability is relevant now.

The simulator
is a means of ground preparation, which allows to fully model the activity of the
pilot in flight, which gives the professional thinking of the cadet a holistic character.
In practicing training, professionalism is considered mainly from the point of view
of improving the structure of executive functions in relation to the formation of
knowledge, skills and abilities. The methodical content of the training is the development
of highly automated skills and given (normalized) actions, and pedagogical – the
quality of execution. But the non-standard decisions, which are characterized by
flight activities in the process of non-standard situations during flights, the
burden on the intellectual pilot’s function during assignment of a type of aviation.

The most effective
means of training pilots are simulators, which create in the pilot the illusion
of the management of a real airspace. Thanks to FS, the pilot performs the training
tasks he has set in the simulation departures while improving his flying skills.
The pilot can train and acquire various skills, such as: starting engines, steering,
take-off and landing, studying onboard systems, etc. With the help of simulation
flights, you can create different conditions of the environment without danger to
the pilot. It also increases the effectiveness of the training and after a certain
training cycle, the pilot can operate a real airplane for his task.

All available
aviation simulators can be divided into two main classes – program simulators, training
complexes. According to modern terminology, aviation simulators with a stationary
cabin are referred to as air simulators 2. Air simulator – flight simulator on
any aircraft. FSs substantially differ in design depending on the destination: from
the mechanical and electronic equipment with the dashboard and the front part of
the fuselage, designed to teach pilots, to computer programs personal computers.
A large number of software simulators is characterized by low realism, because it
does not allow the use of all senses and is used for gaming purposes for personal
computers 1.

Software simulators
are divided into procedural and complex. The procedural aviation simulator is intended
for the training of the flight crew. It is a technical learning tool that enables
you to develop the skills and abilities required in real conditions of the pilot.
It has the following basic properties: simulation of the individual fragments of
the conditions of the actual activity of the pilot; possibility of working out of
separate operations and actions of real work of the pilot with the equipment of
the cabin; the possibility of objective control over the results of all operations
that are practiced on the simulator, and the actions of the instructor.

Procedural simulators
provide training for specific actions, such as airplane, engine and aviation full-time
systems, radio-electronic equipment, combat applications, etc. Typically, they include
display simulators of instrument boards and simulators of control levers, which,
according to their limiting displacements, loading characteristics and tactile sensations,
are realistic at all stages and modes of flight. Some of the devices directly related
to the operation are real.

Procedural simulators
are intended for training by the crew of the procedures for preparing and performing
the flight. In simulators of such appointment, panels, devices and controls are
usually simulated using touch-sensitive monitors. For convenience, individual panels
and controls can be presented in the form of full-size layouts. Additionally, depending
on the amount of tasks performed, the simulators can be divided into the following
types 3:

1. Functional
(primary) cabins, which represent mock-ups of means of displaying information, management
bodies. They provide an opportunity to deepen the knowledge of cadet pilots from
aerodynamics and aviation engineering, to develop the order of the pilot during
the operation of a combat aircraft. Primary aviation simulators are usually the
simplest ones, which are often made by the forces of aviation parts and educational
institutions. Booths and mockups can be considered as functional simulators.

2. Specialized
simulators are intended for the training of pilot cadets for the implementation
of specific specific elements of activity, for the development of individual psychological
qualities and skills in special cases in flight.

A comprehensive
aviation simulator implements training similar to a procedural simulator, but at
the most advanced level and possesses such basic properties as maximum approximation
of the conditions of activity of the pilot on the simulator to the conditions of
real flight activity; ensuring that the simulator runs on the whole of all tasks
of the actual activity of the pilot, which he performs in flight; Ensuring the possibility
of objective control over the results of performing all tasks that are being worked
out.

Comprehensive
simulator – the highest level of technical training equipment for flying training,
as well as an effective means of maintaining the training of pilots. The comprehensive
simulator recreates the real interior of the cabin and gives the opportunity to
work out all the modes of operation of the aircraft without exception. Simulators
of the highest qualification level have a complete set of tools that provide an
adequate effect on all channels of perception of the cadet.

 

1.3

The perception of the physical factors of flight refers to the sensory activity
of the pilot, which participates as the primary elements that perceive motion information
– various human receptors, and corresponding areas of the brain. As you know, the act of piloting a result of various
pilot processing information it receives in the cockpit.

All parts of the aircraft are accompanied by sound information of different
frequencies and sound vibrations. Due to this sound
information, the pilot knows if the parts of the airplane are functioning correctly.
In order to teach pilots this perception and
make appropriate decisions and use simulators of noise.

Sound imitator (SI)
– is an integral part of any modern integrated aviation simulator that provides
a simulation of a real surround sound for pilots during training flights. realization
of the simulator and verification of the adequacy of the sound noise complex of
the real aircraft.

Such simulators are
usually designed as hardware or software-hardware systems with controlled generators
that create noise from various sources, which are characteristic of real flight
and are controlled by the parameters of the training flight. Creating and adjusting
noise generators requires special sound recordings on real objects, complex spectral
analysis and the development of noise synthesizers.

Now, each FS has in its composition
quite powerful sound systems that allow you to play back existing sounds and provide
them with various effects that can reproduce a fairly real sound.

For the pilot sound
is a valuable source of information on the state machinery, electro- and radio equipment,
touched the runway and the like. Modern simulators noise for professional commercial
simulators are software and hardware that form and reproduce the sound of the aircraft
in all flight conditions required adequacy and quality. The process of creating
sound imitator of flight simulator – a very complex and expensive process that requires
study and analysis of aircraft sound – the object of imitation in different modes,
some noise synthesis simulators, selection dependencies performance of their flight
parameters, technical critical situation.

Unfortunately, comparing
modern sound imitators is difficult enough. Usually, all SI for FS come in one set,
and they are quite expensive. But despite this, modern SI can be distinguished by
the following methods for creating sounds:

–            Synthesis of noise using analogue means;

–            Sound recording on a real airplane;

–            Digital synthesis based on assets of
CM in real time.

The simulator, based
on the synthesis of noise using analog means, is used in most modern simulators,
which consists in the electrical synthesis of analog signals with specified frequency
and volume parameters that are converted into sound. These imitators have the disadvantage
that they are quite cumbersome and non-universal.

The next method consists
in recording the sounds of a real aircraft in different operating modes and their
subsequent analysis to isolate external noise sources and their characteristics.
Therefore, when accessing the aircraft,
the developer has the opportunity to study the data sources of noise, performing
various actions to control the mechanisms of the aircraft and record the characteristics
of the sound.

Model

 surround sound is usually presented as a set of
additive noises, each of which is created by a separate source (aircraft mechanism
or environmental factors):

 ,

where

 – Model single noise source.

For each model 

 it is necessary to describe the noise characteristic
and its dependence on the set of parameters of the source of noise.   Noise control in such a model can be represented
by a function that specifies changes in the sound parameters

 from the input parameters of its source

 :

 .

When constructing a
functional model

 Conveniently lead to many independent
functions, each of which describes a change in one parameter output depending on
the set of input:

Most implementations
of simulators have similar architecture (Fig. 1 .1), which includes a set of controlled
noise generator, the output signals are summed, amplified and fed to speakers installed
in the cockpit simulator. Simulation play different number of channels (mono, stereo,
quad and more) and the distribution of functions between hardware and software components.
For each individual source of noise according to the characteristics of the developed
model for it  

 is selected and implemented a
noise generator of the corresponding type and control dependence.   Selection and configuration of generators require
significant costs.

 

Fig. 1.1. Traditional
structure of sound imitator

The ultimate subjective
assessment of the sound environment’s adequacy can only be given by an experienced
pilot simulated aircraft.   In the early stages
of creating an imitator, developers use their own subjective evaluation, realized
by comparing the sound of synthesized noise with recorded samples.

But this method has
a negative side. Such an imitator is long enough to create due to the fact that
very large situations are subject to recording and some of these situations play
dangerous life. Also, the work with the recording will take quite a lot of time
and the necessary professional equipment, to avoid noise from the audio equipment.
Due to the large number audio records, it is difficult to find an option sound in
real time. The lack of full access to the real PS greatly slows the creation and
study of sounds, as it is a real source of sound of the aircraft.

The idea of playing
airborne sound recordings to simulate the sound environment is not new, but for
professional simulators it is not designed and practically not used due to various
reasons, in particular because advanced digital reproduction and sound management
technologies have become available much later than the qualitative analog noise
generation.   In the latter proposed method
uses digital players samples were isolated from previously received records sounds
aircraft. To simulate noise, these sounds are played by adjusting the sound parameters
provided by the CM.

In general, getting
a sound sample is based on the selection of fragments with minimal noise impact.
The first problem in selecting samples is the division of noise from different sources
and their identification.   The second problem
is the lack of binding of noise characteristics to the parameters of the work of
the sources.   The third problem is the lack
of information about the absolute levels of noise in the cabin, since most of the
available recording devices do not record them.   Included mechanisms for automatically adjusting
the level of recording further complicate this problem, making the relative noise
levels less reliable.

The developer must
identify individual noises and determine their parameters.   Identify noise in given case can be subjective
(“listening”) and confirm their identity by spectral analysis and comparison
of options spectrum noise components with predictable modes of the aircraft.   Next, for the identified sound, you need to obtain
a sample of acceptable quality by selecting and clipping the recording fragment.   The task is usually complicated by other sources
of noise aircraft, outside noise (talking pilots click toggle switches in the cockpit,
external noise, etc.). 

The sound environment
model with the use of regulated samples differs from the usual one, including the
fact that it cannot use independent models for each noise, due to the difficulty
of selecting “pure” samples that contain sounds only from their sources
of noise.   The model of a particular source
of noise, as a rule, depends on models of other noise:

 ,

Where

 – the model being considered

 – noise parameters

 – noise source parameters

 – many other models of noise.

This problem is solved
by choosing maximum independent samples and considering dependencies that are left,
the choice of control options.   Listening
and analysis of records the developer finds areas where the noise of this source
is least “clogged” by other noises.  
Next, you need to correlate the selected parameters of noise from its source.   This can be done using the indicator information
in the cab that got included in a video recording, and in its absence – using spectral
analysis and knowledge of the mechanisms operating modes of the aircraft in various
flight conditions. The problem of the absence of data on the absolute levels of
noise in the cabin can be solved only with the use of expert assessment.

The structure of the
proposed simulator is similar to a traditional and is controlled many players, output signals of which
are summarizes (Figure 1.2). Playback can be adjusted in speed to create the effect
of changing the frequency of the noise in volume, as well as several additional
options such as side-effects, echo, etc. The playback mode can be one-off (for single-time
sounds, such as output noise / chassis cleaning) and loop (for continuous, such
as turbine or screw noise).   The connection
between the adjustable parameters of the players and the simulated parameters of
the aircraft is carried out by special converters.   Each converter can implement a function of one
parameter of the player from one or more parameters of the model.   Typically, playback speed is a function of one
parameter.   The volume of noise can depend
on several parameters and can be represented by the product of functions from one
variable:

 ,

Where

– playback volume;

– maximum noise level;

 – normalized parameter
change function

 from the parameter

 models.

Fig. 1. 2. The structure
of an adjustable player – an element of the simulator of noise

This is due to the
fact that the dependence of the volume of the sound of the main mechanisms of their
parameters has a multiplicative nature. For example, the volume of noise propeller
multiplicatively dependent on the frequency of its speed and pitch (angle of rotation
of the blades). The volume of the touching of the runway wheel – from horizontal
and vertical landing speeds. In this case the function of regulating player option
can be implemented as standardized work approximating functions defined for each
parameter. This allows us to create a convenient tool for describing the control
functions in the form of a set of selected parameters of the model of the aircraft

 and functions

 calculated by piecewise
linear function (Fig. 1.2).

 

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