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·       History of Internet

The main purpose of internet was to facilitate communications.
Internet is interconnected networks of computers cooperating with each other to
exchange data. ARPANET was the foundation which led to form the internet.
In1960s they wanted to share information through computers to develop their
military and research field.J.C.R Licklider of MIT proposed global networks of
computer and moved to defense advanced research projects agency (DARPA) to
further develop it.Leornad Keleinrock developed packet switching which formed
the basis of internet. Roberts of MIT connected two computers by dial up
telephone line switching which turned out to be inadequate and he moved to
DARPA and started his plans towards ARPANET. ARPANET was brought online in 1969
under a contract by advance research project agency in which they initially
connected four major computers at universities in the southwestern US. This led
to the formation of internet. Later many protocols were formed and that’s how
internet was originated.

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purpose of following organizations in creating and maintaining internet

W3C (World Wide Consortium ) : builds a technology stack to support Web
of data which enables computers to do efficient work and to develop systems
that can support trusted interactions over the network and encourages more
people to use internet.

 IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force):
creates internet standards to maintain and improve the usability and
interoperability of the internet

ISOC (Internet
Society): creates and maintains internet standards to promote the
development and evolution of internet among people.

IAB (internet
Architecture Board): it gives guidance to ISOC and it improves the
internet standards made by IETF.

Importance of TCP/IP

There are 4 layers in
TCP/IP architecture. Application layer provide applications with standardized exchange of data. The transport layer maintains
end-to-end communications across the network. The network layer,
also called the internet layer, associates with packets and connects
independent networks to transport the packets across network. The physical layer consists of
protocols that operate only on a link, it interconnects nodes or hosts in the network.
Due to the significant features of each layer it is important in internet communication


Protocol is important in internet services because it’s a set of rules
without it computers cannot communicate with each other through internet and it
allows the users to use internet without realizing what’s happening on the
background of it.


DNS Resolution is the process in which Domain name is translated to its
specific IP address. It occurs when a client wants to know IP address of the
server it wants to connect to.



The importance of firewall and proxy servers in internet security is
that they safe guard from threats both from
outside the network and from within. It keeps hackers from probing or attacking
a network over the Internet, and keep infected computers from using their role on
the network to let threats bypass external security. 


Voice over internet
protocol also known as VOIP it is the group of technology where sharing of
voice communications or multimedia messages over the network. It is how we make
internet calls and other form of communication through the internet in low
cost. You only need the VOIP software and internet to use it. Mobile IP is a form where VoIP
technology is operated from mobile devices, it is much easier and more


is the fourth version of internet protocol that is used to identify devices on
the uses the 32 bit address scheme.IPV4 is a set of four numbers
separated by periods. Each number can take the value from 0 to

IPV6 was
originated to fulfill the need for more internet is the newest
version of internet protocol. Pv6 are 128 bit IP address, they are written in hexadecimal and
separated by colons. Example: 3aae:1900:3:4565:c9ff:de21:67cf

world examples for third tier architecture are all web applications. ORACLE, MYSQL, MS SQL,
Etc. along with Server level OS forms the third tire. Almost all dynamic web
sites are depending on three tire architecture. Real world examples for peer to
peer architectures are Bit torrent, Skype, Live Station, Adobe Flash player.

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